On Thursday 21 July 2011 4 21 /07 /Jul /2011 04:43

In Spain there are four types of natural landscapes: the Oceanic landscape, the Mediterranean, the Mountain and  the Canary Islands landscape. The Oceanic landscape of the area north of the peninsula, inserted into the region called Eurosiberian and their characteristics will differ from the rest of the natural landscapes of the country.

The ocean landscape extends through the northern zone Of the Peninsula: by Galicia and by the Cantabrian coast.

In regard to his relief, this is rough, hilly with slopes and with a few flat surfaces.

The climate is called ocean type. It is characterized by a volume of precipitation not less than 800mm, regular throughout all the months of the year (with two dry months maximum, taking into account that in a temperate climate is considered dry month with less than 30mm) and a thermal amplitude low thanks to the regulating action of the sea.

The rivers of the ocean landscape belong to the Cantabrian slopes in its majority. It is short rivers, since born near the sea; regular and plentiful thanks to the abundant rainfall.

The climax or native vegetation is also known as the deciduous forest of oak and beech. With the degradation of this vegetation, whether by fire or indiscriminate logging, appears the Landa or scrub: such as heather, gorse, broom, and the meadows. This vegetation has undergone an intense process of replacement by trees of rapid economic development, such as pine and eucalyptus trees.

In regard to the soil, the soil type will be conditioned by the crag:

  • Ooze in rocky areas, there are two types of soil. The brown earth, that it is a soil rich in humus and somewhat acid that allows the cultivation and grazing, and the soil type ranker, which occurs in the slopes very eroded and is only suitable for meadows and forests.
  • In limestone crag, you can be the earth brown limestone, which allows the cultivation of beans, corn and the existence of meadows and terra fusca, which occurs in mountainous areas and has a forest exploitation.
Costa cantábrica
By Francisco José - Published in: Geography
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Friday 10 June 2011 5 10 /06 /JUN /2011 6:07 PM

The climate of London is oceanic type of Breton, being in the classification of Köppen climate a cfb; that is to say, a temperate climate with abundant rainfall throughout the year. We are going to see what are the geographical factors that determine its climate, which make the time is changing so much despite the fact that their thermal variability throughout the year so little.

Influence of the geographical situation in the climate

London is located in the 51o North, in Western Europe, in an area of the planet whose main characteristic is the thermal moderation, as a result of its latitudinal situation and of the influence of the sea. Let's see how this affects the weather in London.

1.With regard to the latitudinal situation, the area is the convergence point for two centers of action associated with two air masses very different, the warm tropical air and the cold polar air (this impact zone is known as polar front). These masses are:

The Azores anticyclone, a mass of wet air (born in the ocean) and warm (is of tropical origin).

The depression of Iceland, we are talking about air also wet (also born in the ocean) and cold (polar).

The clash of two humid air masses with different thermal characteristics associated precipitation.

2. With respect to the marine influence; the English coasts, are bathed by a branch of the Gulf Stream, a warm current known as the North Atlantic Drift, which makes the temperatures are 11or higher than in the same latitudes in America, in addition to facilitating the formation of clouds filled with moisture.

3. In regard to the influence of the relief in the climate of London it should be noted the absence of mountain barriers, and therefore, the penetration of the influence of humid winds.

The stations in London

All the geographical factors identified are combined to make the time in England is in all the stations very unstable and moderate heat with very little interannual variability.

In January, the average values of the temperature in London are of 4° C. The aforementioned maritime influence, which moderates the temperatures, along with the low average altitude of the south of England, makes this temperature is less low that in many areas of inland Spain in the same period. In addition, the variations in temperature in winter are only of 5 or 10 °.

In July, the average temperature is 18 º; but to be in such an unstable area is very common both the arrival of cold fronts both as cyclone, with which the temperature can be very variable and of days quite cold go to days with 30O.

Big Ben en Londres
By Francisco José - Published in: Geography
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On Tuesday 31 May 2011 2 31 /05 /May /2011 7:03 PM

The American continent, with more than 40 million km2 is the second surface of the planet and the first extension in latitudinal: from the Arctic Ocean to the Antarctic. It is actually two continents: North America, which arose from the ancient continent of Laurasia and South America, torn of Gondwana and recently united by the isthmus of Panama. We're going to see the main features of the map of America.

North America

The Anglo-saxon North America with nearly 20 million km2.

Units of the highlights:

1. The Canadian Shield, in the northeastern area. A socket Precambrian (crystalline rocks and metamorphic) with a relief of peneplain.

2. The Appalachian Mountains, a mountain chain paleozoic from Newfoundland to Alabama (2,600 km) and embossed apalachense, with modest heights and rounded shapes.

3. The plains are a triangle that limited to this with the shield and the Appalachian Mountains and to the west with the western mountain ranges.

4. The western mountain ranges. Much higher than the Appalachians by his youth: develop with the orogenies of the Tertiary. Their characteristics are as follows:

  • About 8,000 km in length.

  • Predominance of high mountains.

  • Already in the US, the mountain ranges are divided from east to west in the Rocky Mountains, great plains and the mountains of the Pacific, with strong seismic activity.

Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean:

1. Mexico: a large plateau, the Meseta Central, flanked by two mountain ranges: the Sierra Madre Occidental and Oriental.

2. Central America, with volcanic and lateritic soils.

3. The Caribbean, of great volcanic activity and divided into Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles.

South America

In the maps of South America we differentiate, from east to west:

1. The shields. Some plateaus of crystalline precambrian metamorphic rocks.

  • The Brazilian shield, in the sector next to the sea the climate action has formed the known sugar loaf. In the interior, the highlighted form a peneplain.
  • The shield of the Guianas, smaller and to the north of the Amazon basin. Similar to the previous by its origin and morphology.
  • The plateau of the Patagonia. It is a succession of plateaus depopulated with deep valleys and covered by basalt.

2. The sedimentary basins, large extensions between the massifs of the this and the ranges of the Andes:

  • Los Llanos of the Orinoco, with 600.000 km2.
  • The plains of the Amazon, a bowl of 7 million km2, with ferrallitic soils. It puts the world's largest watershed.
  • The plain of the Pampas. With more than 600,000 km2 and sandy and clay soils.

3. The Cordillera de Los Andes, which arose from the Tertiary Era, it extends more than 7000 km, the longest in the world.

1 Mapa físico y político de América en 1840 Western hemisphere map,
By Francisco José - Published in: Geography
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Saturday 28 May 2011 6 28 /05 /May /2011 02:47

Cantabrian Mountains is the denomination that receives a mountainous system of Spain that extends from the Ancares, to the west; to the Montes Vascos, to the east. It is one of the ridges that border the plateau, which isolates of the marine influence. There are two distinct sectors: the western or eastern asturian and the. We are going to see their characteristics and evolution.

The Asturian Massif

.Origin: In the Paleozoic era emerges the Hesperico Massif, which covered the western part of the current Iberian Peninsula to the north of present-day Sierra Morena. The eastern limit of this massif is the current asturian Massif.

.Materials and landforms: therefore, by its origin, materials are hard and stiff (except in the Picos de Europa), quartzite and slate. Appears a relief of apalachense type produced by the alternation of hardest materials, the quartzite, on other less hard, blackboards and a relief of Germanic type, since the Palaeozoic materials (hard and stiff), respond to pressures and not breaking his deferring.

.Evolution: TO the Laramide orogeny herciniana (Primary) we have the appearance of abundant coal deposits. During the Secondary, orogenic period of calm (and therefore of erosion) and forward of the sea, always remained emerged. The current forms are the result of the alpine orogeny (Tertiary era), retouched in our time (Quaternary) by the glacier.

This is the sector where are the higher altitudes of the mountain range, the Picos de Europa. Of calcareous material, their summits (include Torre Cerredo, 2,648 meters; Llambrion 2,617 m; Old Penalty, 2,613 m; Naranjo de Bulnes, 2,519 m) clearly show the fingerprints to the glaciers that we have made mention.

The eastern sector

.Origin: east of the Asturian Massif, the waters of a south trending geosyncline deposited sediments of several thousand meters thick.

.Materials and landforms: therefore, by its origin, it is soft materials: limestone, clays, sandstones and marls. In this sector phenomena abound of karst origin, due to the abundance of rainfall and the presence of limestone.

.Evolution: When it comes to soft materials, before the alpine orogeny, defacing these responded. The height in this sector of the Andes is considerably lower and therefore was not affected by the quaternary glacier.

Macizo central de los Picos de Europa
By Francisco José - Published in: Geography
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On Wednesday 27 April 2011 3 27 /04 /Apr. /2011 10:18 PM

The system is a central area of the old socket fragmented peninsular. On this socket of rigid materials and Paleozoic age were accumulated marine material during the Mesozoic era, at least until the former coastline, which arrived at the center of the peninsula. Subsequently, the alpine orogenesis lifted and fractured these materials. The quaternary glacier tweaked the cordillera.

During the Paleozoic era, in the Carboniferous period known as gender is an important mountain range due to the collision of don ancient tectonic plates, the call is herciniana orogenesis.

The Mesozoic era was a period of calm, where there was a predominance of transgressions and regressions of the sea, which means erosion and sedimentation. The old chain herciniana became a platform. In the area corresponding to the current Central System, the sea of Thetys de Milà, the predecessor of the Mediterranean, covered the eastern part, thus generating a sedimentary top dressing.

This calm was broken in the Tertiary by the alpine orogenesis, fruit of the clash of Africa (which had formed part of the ancient continent of Gondwana) against the iberian microplate. To be the rigid materials, these responded to the crash and not breaking his deferring: the Central System is one of the raised blocks (being the provincess north and south blocks sunken). In turn, the system also responded breaking his, creating a kind of highlighting known as germanic and highlighted that consists in a succession of blocks and other sunken raised. The blocks would be raised the mountains: in the direction NE-SO we'd have Ayllon, followed by Somosierra, Guadarrama, Gredos (where this Pico Almanzor, 2592m, the highest elevation of the cordillera) ,the Sierra de Gata and penalty of France. The system was erected in Portugal with the Sierra de la Estrella.

The last phase in the evolution of the Central System corresponds to the quaternary period, marked by the glacier action. The traces of this action are visible in the lagoons of glacial origin as in Gredos and Peñalara. In the dynamic ice-thawing on the granite rock have been landscapes of great beauty such as La Pedriza or Galayos.

La Pedriza

By Francisco José - Published in: Geography
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