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Saturday 3 November 2012 6 03 /11 /Nov /2012 7:44 PM

We are going to see the evolution of the various flags of Spain. When the flag of Spain was born? The current flag of Spain is born at the end of the eighteenth century, and was adopted as official flag of Spain during the reign of Isabel II, in 1843, abandoned during the Second Republic and back to adopt at the end of this. It is a bicolor flag, red and yellow, being the central yellow stripe and double width. But before I get to it, there was a long history of the Spanish flag, which reflects each of the historical moments of the country.

The Middle Ages, the hispanic kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula


Flags of the different Hispanic medieval kingdoms. At the end of the Middle Ages we have: the Crown of Castile (with the flag of the kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of León from the unification of 1230); the Crown of Aragon (with the flag cuatribarrada); the kingdom of Navarre (that incorporates in its flag chains won by Sancho VII in the Battle of Navas de Tolosa); the Muslim kingdom of Granada (with red background and the motto in Arabic script: "Only God is victorious") and the Kingdom of Portugal.

With the process of Union Dynastic Castilla And Aragón appears in the banner of Catholic Monarchs The Eagle of Saint John, that Symbolizes The Catholic faith, And in the barracks of the shield each of the different kingdoms of their crowns, including the Iberian peninsula from the Crown of Aragon. With the conquest of the kingdom of Granada, the Nasrid flag was discarded, appearing in its place a grenade as a symbol of the kingdom and by incorporating it into the barracks of the shield.

The Modern Age, the House of Austria in Spain

With the entry of the House of Austria in Spain, at the hand of Charles V we have the two-headed eagle of the Habsburg monarchy, and in the barracks every one of the kingdoms that make up. The division of the territories of the emperor between his brother Fernando and his son Philip caused the disappearance of spread eagle.

In parallel the thirds Spaniards carry in their flags the cross of San Andrés, red on a white background. The cross of San Andrés carrying will end up being a symbol of Spain.

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The Modern Age, the House of Bourbon in Spain

With the arrival of the House of Bourbon with Felipe V arrived also the banner bourbon, white background with the royal coat; very similar to that of the other kingdoms with the same house prevailing: France, Parma, Tuscany and Sicily. So Carlos III decided to create a banner for the Spanish navy which will differentiate the Spanish ships and by a decree of 1785, is running a competition to be chosen as banner for the ships the flag red and yellow.

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The Contemporary Age in Spain

The political division between Carlists and liberal was symbolized in the election of their flags: the Carlists, supporters of the former regime will be identified with the banner of the cross of St Andrew; the liberals, with the ensign of the navy, red and yellow. The military victory of the liberals will mean the choice of the red flag and yellow, which will be officially recognized as national flag in 1843, with Isabel II.

I Republic maintains the colors of the Spanish flag, but disappearing real symbology who will return with the restoration of the Bourbons, although there was a change project teaches that not prosperous.

It is in the II Republic when the flag becomes national tri-color, taking each of the strips the same width and putting colored purple, in commemoration of the banners carried by the comuneros of Castile, in the lower tier. The shield adopted is similar to that of the First Republic.


http://www.nodo50.org/republica/simb/bandera-republica-2006.jpg

The rebelling side during the Civil War will return soon to the bicolor flag. The eagle of Saint John will be formally adopted as a shield in 1945.

Finally, in 1981, approving the national version of the shield until our days, because the Constitution of 1978 had been kept in its article 4 the same flag that had been approved by Carlos III. Except in the period from 1931 to 1936, it has only changed the shield.

By blogtodohistoriaymas - Published in: History
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Saturday 3 November 2012 6 03 /11 /Nov /2012 08:52

"The peoples of Spain". Here we read with great rigor all the possible aspects of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsular.

The first part of the work focuses on the Ancient History of Spain, from the Palaeolithic to the Romanization, with particular emphasis in the pre-roman peoples who lived in Iberia: linguistics, society, material civilization.

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AND is that Julio Caro Baroja, probably from the Spanish Anthropology the best representative that has taken our country, he wrote in "the peoples of Spain" the most comprehensive of the ethnographic studies of Spain that had been made to date of its completion in 1946 ... and it remains so. Now you can not call attention to its approach (although it remains unsurpassed by its depth and comprehensiveness), but in those years was a incredible novelty.

"The peoples of Spain" raises an ethnological study in its second volume, with a different approach. There is no question here of a historical study, but fully focused on the ethnology of Spain, although with multiple historical references-.

Caro Baroja divided into etnoregiones Spain with their different characteristics. Discusses all aspects of the material life and intangible in these regions ethnic spanish (popular art, structures of room, marriage customs in Spain, forms of agricultural life and livestock, folklore, mythology, rituals ... and of course the holidays in Spain with a degree of unsurpassed depth.

Anthropology of the peoples of Spain Thus becomes our days in a work of historical value incalculable. What in 1946 was a masterpiece of ethnography in Spain, the advance of industrialization and urbanization of our country has become a masterpiece on the life and thought of our parents, grandparents and even great-grandparents (here we are dependent on the age of each one ... ).

This does not mean that in this work of anthropology on Spain Some features of the Spanish and the Spanish culture cannot be observed today: in fact, some are of tremendous today, as the persistence of caste "spanish", that are perpetuated through the nepotism.

Why does the Anthropology of the peoples of Spain In Julio Caro Baroja is a masterpiece novel? Now it is normal, but then all the studies with components ethnographic or historical-geographic that had been made in Spain (and the majority of foreigners also) exudes "essentialism" and "metaphysics" on the be deep and eternal of determined people - the "being" Hispanic", the "Russian soul" … -, very much in line with the idea of the volkgeist. The work of Julio Caro Baroja breaks with this tradition to assume characters eternal to a people, to do, simply, good ethnography.

By blogtodohistoriaymas - Published in: History
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On Tuesday 19 July 2011 2 19 /07 /Jul /2011 6:58 PM

Our history has traditionally been divided into in prehistory and history, is to split your time in Antigua, Media, modern and contemporary. We will see here the main events in the Prehistory and Ancient History; at the end of which, the process romanizador had achieved the establishment of the Latin, the language of which derives from the Spanish.

- Prehistoric and Protohistoric period:

The Prehistory begins with the arrival of the human species to the Peninsula (Atapuerca, around 800,000 years) and would cover up to the colonization, in the first millennium B.C.

The Protohistoric period would begin with the Phoenician and Greek colonization, who founded colonies and factories in the mediterranean coast peninsular (Cadiz, Mainake, Ampurias ... ). In parallel, waves of people of celtic culture settle on the Peninsula.

In the middle of the first millennium, is already the division between celts, Iberians and Iberians.

The defeat of Carthage in the first Punic war (264-241 B.C. ) and the loss of their possessions in southern Italy, it causes this power search Iberia lost territory.

- Ancient History: The Iberian Peninsula enters into the history of the big door and violently, with the arrival of the Roman armies of Scipio to end with the main reserve of men and metals of Carthage in the second Punic war (218-201 B.C. ).

The arrival of Rome involved the conversion of Hispania in roman province. Hispania will be divided into two provinces: Citerior and further.

The hardness and rapaciousness of Rome in Hispania caused the rebellion of the Lusitano (the hand of Viriato) and of the Celtiberians (site of Numancia). The victory of the Roman Republic - Numancia in the 133 bc - was total and only at the end of the republican era, only the Cantabrian territory was outside the domain of Rome.

The Cantabrian territory will be conquered by Augustus in the late first century B.C. Augusto splits Hispania in three provinces: Hispania Baetica, Lusitania and Tarragon.

In the third century the Roman Empire goes into crisis and reorganized the provinces. Diocletian creates two provinces more: Gallaecia and Carthaginian. All pass to belong to the Diocese of Hispania, within the Prefecture of Gaul.

To conclude, our Ancient History ends with the arrival of the Visigoths and the end of the Roman Hispania in the V century begins the Middle Ages. Although according to many historians it will not begin until the arrival of the Arabs in 711.

1 Mapa de las provincias romanas en España y Portugal.   Date 1893 |
By Francisco José - Published in: History
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Friday 15 July 2011 5 15 /07 /Jul /2011 07:51

The territory of the island of Great Britain occupies 229,850 km2, which is divided in three nations: England, Scotland and Wales. It is often used this name as a synonym for United Kingdom, which geographically is not correct, because this also includes Northern Ireland. This article explains the constitution and the history of Great Britain.

Since the Roman conquest until the Norman conquest

Old Age: the emergence of Great Britain in the story itself (based on the existence of written documents) begins with the arrival of the Romans in the I century A. C, which they called Britannia. She was previously occupied by people of celtic culture, where it is assumed comes the etymology of Britannia.

The romanization was weak, despite the presence of the wall of Hadrian, built to contain the savage picts of the north. When the Roman Empire entered a crisis in the third century, Rome abandoned the island.

Middle Ages: for the British historiography, begins in the fourth century, the Dark Ages Would last until the eleventh century. The Venerable Bede tells us in her Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum Whom As the Anglos (where derived from the name of England), jutos and Saxons had invaded Britannia. It is in this context that the king Arthur appears, probably a roman warlord-czech-british that fought against the invaders. The case is that Britannia was divided into 7 kingdoms, the eparchy.

Britannia was punished by Viking invasions in the IX, arriving the Danes to found a kingdom own in York, the Danelaw. The joy of victory on the vikings anglo-saxon hard little: in the year 1066, the Norman army of William the Conqueror defeated the Saxons in Hastings.

Since the Norman conquest until our days

The new Norman kings of England will fluctuate between their British and French. The story will be marked by the expansion in the islands (definitive conquest of Wales in 1291, and intermittent occupations of Scotland and Ireland) and the fight against the kings of France inland by their possessions. Duality which will end with the final defeat English in the Hundred Years War in 1453, and that will cause a crisis which will lead to the War of the Roses.

The crisis has ended with the advent to the throne of the Tudor, who will begin a struggle for world domination against Spain first (Elizabeth I), against Holland after and finally against France. Struggle which will end with the supremacy of England, who had already achieved the unification with Scotland in 1707 and with Ireland in 1801.

Despite the loss of the American colonies in 1776, England thanks to the Industrial Revolution achieved a world empire, which will be maintained until the twentieth century

The world wars resulted in the weakening of this empire: the loss of the 3/4 parts of Ireland first and the independence of its colonies and dominions after. In spite of everything, Great Britain still has important ties with its former colonies of the hand of the Commonwealth and continues to be one of the most important states of the world.

Union JackYou know what it is
By Francisco José - Published in: History
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On Thursday 30 June 2011 4 30 /06 /JUN /2011 00:36

The current flag of Germany was born in the nineteenth century, was adopted as official flag by the Weimar Republic in 1919, abandoned during the Third Reich and back to adopt in 1949. This is a taught tri-color, with three horizontal stripes, black, red and gold. In terms of its origin and meaning the flag has a long gestation, that we are going to explain.

The formation of the German flag

The first state formation germanica, the Germanic Holy Roman Empire, did not have an official flag; but the black two-headed eagle on a gold background was fixed from the fourteenth century as imperial flag, becoming the banner of the House of Habsburg.

When Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806 created the Confederation of the Rhine and ends with the Holy Roman Empire, the Emperor Francis is declared emperor of Austria and adopts the imperial banner.

In parallel, in the Napoleonic wars; the volunteers who fought against the French, the Freikorps, Lucian in their uniforms the colors black, red and gold, both for practical reasons (the black dye was the most easy to stain), as policies (the colors of the defenestrated Holy Roman Empire).

In 1815, after the war, the former volunteers founded a brotherhood in Jena, creating a flag with the colors of their old uniforms.

In the Revolution of 1848, the German nationalist calling for the creation of a united Germany in the Frankfurt Parliament, where it was adopted as German flag colors black, red and gold.

German unification came not from the hand of Austria, nor of the revolutionaries, but conservative Prussia, which adopted as flag of the II Reich the flag with the colors white, black and red of the kingdom of Prussia (black and white) and of the Hanseatic League (white and red). The non-adoption of the dorado symbolized the exclusion of Austria to Germany.

The twentieth century

After the dissolution of the German Empire after the revolution of 1918, the new Weimar Republic adopts the former flag of the revolutionaries of 1848.

The black flag, red and gold of the new republic was associated by many nationalist sectors to the defeat of 1918, arriving and policemen who tried to denigrate it.

The Nazi victory in 1933 the banned and the new third Reich adopted a new flag, combination of the colors red, black and white of the II Reich and the swastika as a symbol of the Aryan race.

The victors of World War II proscribing the swastikas. In 1949, the tricolour was adopted as the flag of the FRG, to symbolize the continuity with the Weimar Republic.

In 1959, the GDR communist adopts the shield, which will disappear with the fall of the Berlin wall.

deutschlandfahne
By Francisco José - Published in: History
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