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Saturday 3 November 2012 6 03 /11 /Nov /2012 7:44 PM

We are going to see the evolution of the various flags of Spain. When the flag of Spain was born? The current flag of Spain is born at the end of the eighteenth century, and was adopted as official flag of Spain during the reign of Isabel II, in 1843, abandoned during the Second Republic and back to adopt at the end of this. It is a bicolor flag, red and yellow, being the central yellow stripe and double width. But before I get to it, there was a long history of the Spanish flag, which reflects each of the historical moments of the country.

The Middle Ages, the hispanic kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula


Flags of the different Hispanic medieval kingdoms. At the end of the Middle Ages we have: the Crown of Castile (with the flag of the kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of León from the unification of 1230); the Crown of Aragon (with the flag cuatribarrada); the kingdom of Navarre (that incorporates in its flag chains won by Sancho VII in the Battle of Navas de Tolosa); the Muslim kingdom of Granada (with red background and the motto in Arabic script: "Only God is victorious") and the Kingdom of Portugal.

With the process of Union Dynastic Castilla And Aragón appears in the banner of Catholic Monarchs The Eagle of Saint John, that Symbolizes The Catholic faith, And in the barracks of the shield each of the different kingdoms of their crowns, including the Iberian peninsula from the Crown of Aragon. With the conquest of the kingdom of Granada, the Nasrid flag was discarded, appearing in its place a grenade as a symbol of the kingdom and by incorporating it into the barracks of the shield.

The Modern Age, the House of Austria in Spain

With the entry of the House of Austria in Spain, at the hand of Charles V we have the two-headed eagle of the Habsburg monarchy, and in the barracks every one of the kingdoms that make up. The division of the territories of the emperor between his brother Fernando and his son Philip caused the disappearance of spread eagle.

In parallel the thirds Spaniards carry in their flags the cross of San Andrés, red on a white background. The cross of San Andrés carrying will end up being a symbol of Spain.

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The Modern Age, the House of Bourbon in Spain

With the arrival of the House of Bourbon with Felipe V arrived also the banner bourbon, white background with the royal coat; very similar to that of the other kingdoms with the same house prevailing: France, Parma, Tuscany and Sicily. So Carlos III decided to create a banner for the Spanish navy which will differentiate the Spanish ships and by a decree of 1785, is running a competition to be chosen as banner for the ships the flag red and yellow.

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The Contemporary Age in Spain

The political division between Carlists and liberal was symbolized in the election of their flags: the Carlists, supporters of the former regime will be identified with the banner of the cross of St Andrew; the liberals, with the ensign of the navy, red and yellow. The military victory of the liberals will mean the choice of the red flag and yellow, which will be officially recognized as national flag in 1843, with Isabel II.

I Republic maintains the colors of the Spanish flag, but disappearing real symbology who will return with the restoration of the Bourbons, although there was a change project teaches that not prosperous.

It is in the II Republic when the flag becomes national tri-color, taking each of the strips the same width and putting colored purple, in commemoration of the banners carried by the comuneros of Castile, in the lower tier. The shield adopted is similar to that of the First Republic.


http://www.nodo50.org/republica/simb/bandera-republica-2006.jpg

The rebelling side during the Civil War will return soon to the bicolor flag. The eagle of Saint John will be formally adopted as a shield in 1945.

Finally, in 1981, approving the national version of the shield until our days, because the Constitution of 1978 had been kept in its article 4 the same flag that had been approved by Carlos III. Except in the period from 1931 to 1936, it has only changed the shield.

By blogtodohistoriaymas - Published in: History
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Saturday 3 November 2012 6 03 /11 /Nov /2012 08:52

"The peoples of Spain". Here we read with great rigor all the possible aspects of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsular.

The first part of the work focuses on the Ancient History of Spain, from the Palaeolithic to the Romanization, with particular emphasis in the pre-roman peoples who lived in Iberia: linguistics, society, material civilization.

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AND is that Julio Caro Baroja, probably from the Spanish Anthropology the best representative that has taken our country, he wrote in "the peoples of Spain" the most comprehensive of the ethnographic studies of Spain that had been made to date of its completion in 1946 ... and it remains so. Now you can not call attention to its approach (although it remains unsurpassed by its depth and comprehensiveness), but in those years was a incredible novelty.

"The peoples of Spain" raises an ethnological study in its second volume, with a different approach. There is no question here of a historical study, but fully focused on the ethnology of Spain, although with multiple historical references-.

Caro Baroja divided into etnoregiones Spain with their different characteristics. Discusses all aspects of the material life and intangible in these regions ethnic spanish (popular art, structures of room, marriage customs in Spain, forms of agricultural life and livestock, folklore, mythology, rituals ... and of course the holidays in Spain with a degree of unsurpassed depth.

Anthropology of the peoples of Spain Thus becomes our days in a work of historical value incalculable. What in 1946 was a masterpiece of ethnography in Spain, the advance of industrialization and urbanization of our country has become a masterpiece on the life and thought of our parents, grandparents and even great-grandparents (here we are dependent on the age of each one ... ).

This does not mean that in this work of anthropology on Spain Some features of the Spanish and the Spanish culture cannot be observed today: in fact, some are of tremendous today, as the persistence of caste "spanish", that are perpetuated through the nepotism.

Why does the Anthropology of the peoples of Spain In Julio Caro Baroja is a masterpiece novel? Now it is normal, but then all the studies with components ethnographic or historical-geographic that had been made in Spain (and the majority of foreigners also) exudes "essentialism" and "metaphysics" on the be deep and eternal of determined people - the "being" Hispanic", the "Russian soul" … -, very much in line with the idea of the volkgeist. The work of Julio Caro Baroja breaks with this tradition to assume characters eternal to a people, to do, simply, good ethnography.

By blogtodohistoriaymas - Published in: History
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On Tuesday 29 November 2011 2 29 /11 /Nov /2011 08:17

Do seduce or be seduced? If someone wants to know the models for seductive that there are, both to seduce as to know the enemy, here is a mythic: the lolitas.

If there is a female character hated by women, desired by men and feared by both are the "lolitas". Dangerous as no one, can lead to the destruction of his victim as in the celebrated work of Nabokov, and incarnated in the film masterfully Jeremy Irons and Dominique Swain (in the photo). Of course, the film was a scandal, and that that in the film Lolita was 14 years old, whereas in the novel was younger still.

But, where do you get the power? In a broad sense we can call lolita not necessarily to a minor with a similar appearance to Dominique Swain, but to any woman with a look and an attitude young enough to be able to play this role. To the best with this tint is better understood the origin of its success.

dominique swain 4

Because historically men have been forced to be rational, responsible and in addition dominant. These women what they offer is the release of a paper forced by life. Have a strong sexual charge and prosecute them men can reach completely lose control (what unconsciously want to do).

It must be borne in mind that Lolita not born, but made. It builds to itself by cultivating an attitude, and a appearance (it is not so much a form of clothing such as smiling, walking, etc. ). It is a mixture of innocent girl and perverted at the same time, an example would be the Marilyn Monroe, which was taught to walk, to move, and even to speak of suggestive ways. He spent hours in front of the mirror, and not by vanity as they believed the other, but to test the role. This combined at the same time with a real need for affection (grew up in an orphanage) that the toward vulnerable and this combination proved to be explosive.

It is important to distinguish to the lolita of what would be a simple buscona, the lolitas have a touch of innocence and vulnerability that makes them seem in need of protection, to what the men will find it very hard to resist, although those who really need protection are them. Its power comes from its innocent-looking: seem unable to realize the effect they produce, as if they were not aware of what they do, what they condone their behavior.

How do you become a seductive young woman of this type? If any reader wants to become this kind of seductive young woman a series of tips: you should know that will be more effective with men by rigid be these repressed or with an intellectual who lack physical emotions.

Also take into account that must be distinguished from the other women (especially if your physical is not spectacular) being more sexual than the other, but always, always, that it seems that is not on purpose.

Once this is achieved, you must have one point of unpredictability, of danger and even capricious girl.

However, before embarking to represent this role must be weighed against a number of dangers that face the lolitas in the balance: lolita has to be prepared for the hostility of the other women, who obviously can't deceive with their dual role; although men can apologize for her behavior, not the other women. You can achieve this with some despistadas if it makes the victim of the desire of the men, by exploiting the female solidarity, but to the avispadas may not deceive.

And although we do not need a physical as powerful as Marylin to be a lolita, since the key is the interpretation ( the calculated ambiguity to be at the same time a good girl and a vampire experienced), a true physical if necessary. In addition to projecting the image of poor innocent girl beyond a certain age is impossible.

By blogtodohistoriaymas - Published in: Relationships and Sexuality
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On Wednesday 3 August 2011 3 03 /08 /Aug /2011 2:28 PM

2677484165_27173e5712.jpgMuch ink has been spilt on the current economic crisis - as much or more so than on the depression of the 29. Not going to talk about the causes of these crises, but rather on its consequences, and specifically on the different reaction that has caused every one of these in the society, and more specifically in this traditionally called working class or with a more Marxist terminology, proletariat.

When took place the crisis of the 29 ... well, we all remember those executives and speculators on the stock exchange (these were the ones who caused the disaster) throwing themselves at the windows of the skyscraper. LOTR that now ...

Mira, in contrast the reaction of governments if that sounds to me like known. The president of the country where it originated the crisis of the 29, Hoover launched a deflationary policy - the recipe classic liberal- control of public expenditure (to then say that history never repeats itself) that the only thing he did was to worsen the situation. And while the ship sank this ultra-liberal proclaiming that "prosperity is just around the corner", where the number of unemployed persons in the United States already reached six million. To contain spending led to more unemployment, and causing more unemployment, people had less money to spend, and then to not buy the companies were saggy ... in a vicious circle.

Clear, lost the elections of the hand of Roosevelt, which was launched in its electoral campaign the novel idea - at the time, and very criticized by "wasteful" by the ... yes, those - that the people had to have a job and money to spend and so get over the depression. LOTR that now…and I am referring to the reaction of voters.

Because what if that has nothing to do it is the reaction of the people ... the Gila humorist once said that he had been a republican all his life because this regime was that gave him a weekly day of rest, forcing the shops -was dependent - to close to their workers would be able to rest. Now that LOTR ... where a classless working class that is not conscious of its interests applauds frantically suicidal idea -suicide for them - that everything has to be open 24 hours a day, every day of the year-.

Equally or more suicidal is the collective applause for this class? The attack on everything public ... and I am not referring to what is going to happen when the public health burst -rather make burst ... - I mean that the function is public (and especially in Spain, where everything is going in plug and there is no R&D) the almost unique opportunity to have a person born within the working class to climb the social ladder.

By eliminating the officials are eliminating the possibility that they could take their children to be mechanical, waiters, masons ... or is that really someone is so stupid to believe that in the capitalist system normally triumphs (and i mean to succeed, not having a bar working 80 hours per week and be bought then a casoplon of doubtful taste exploiting immigrants without contract) which is worth more and not the one who has studied in certain schools where friendships between powerful families?

In conclusion: the workers from the years 30 had very clear who had caused its collapse: the liberal capitalist system. In a few short years this seemed to be going to disappear, while their victims are passed through to the communism, fascism or the anarchism (700,000 affiliates had the CNT); and the capitalism could only be saved by washing your face, taking the measures of the economist Keynes (that was widely criticized by ... yes, that is) that were the basis of the Welfare State.

But ... of the three systems in liza in the twentieth century, fascism was defeated in the Second World War, the communism in 1990 with the defeat of the USSR in the Cold War, and the only existing system already doesn't have to pretend ...

And it will not do so while their victims continue to believe in his speech.


By blogtodohistoriaymas - Published in: currently
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On Monday 1 August 2011 1 01 /08 /Aug /2011 11:03 PM

Jaca, the capital of the historic county of Jacetania, is an important benchmark in the winter sports, but also has an impressive monumental heritage, such as corresponds to the that was first capital of Aragon and one of the major enclaves of the Camino de Santiago. All this makes it a true "capital of the Pyrenees". Here is the information to stay in it.

Hotels in Jaca

As you might expect, the offer of hotels in Jaca is very wide. We have chosen the hotels more appreciated by the users in different categories. All of them very close to the ski slopes.

.Four-star hotels in Jaca:

  • The Oroel Hotel is in the Avenida de Francia, the principal of Jaca; only 20 minutes of Astún, Candanchú and at the foot of Oroel peak, with fantastic view of the Citadel and the peaks of the Pyrenees.

  • With 124 rooms facilities include a restaurant, cafeteria, swimming pool in summer, discotheque and parking.

  • From 75 euros per double room on 1 August 2011. May be booked by Booking.com.

.3 Star hotels in Jaca:

  • Grand Hotel in Jaca, located in the Paseo de la Constitución, 1.
  • The hotel offers 165 rooms with satellite tv and video channel. The hotel has a restaurant, a cafe, mini golf, ski in the winter and parking.
  • Reservations in Granhoteljaca.com. From 63 euros per double room on August 1 2011.

.Hotels from 2 star in Jaca:

  • The Boira Hotel, situated in the center of the city, in the street Ansó Valley, is quoted as a hotel in Jaca family environment.
  • The hotel has 30 rooms, all with bathroom, air conditioning and heating, tv with satellite and the internet. The hotel has a lounge fireplace, ski storage, parking garage and offers adventure trips with guides.
  • From 60 euros per double room on 1 August 2011. Can be booked in Hotelaboira.com

Hostels in Jaca

There is also the possibility of finding accommodation in Jaca at more affordable prices. Hostels in Jaca, centrally located and well appreciated by the users are:

- Hostal Ski passes account for coffee. In the main street, 57, in the old town.

  • Disposes of 27 rooms in a building of 1900, but restored in 2010. Has wifi internet, service of storing skis and bicycles. They also organize adventure programs.
  • From 40 euros per double room on 1 August 2011. Can be booked in Infohostal.com.

- Alpine Hostel, is also located in the calle Mayor.

  • It has 25 rooms all with bathroom, central heating and television. It has cafeteria and tv room. There are also service ski-storage.
  • From 29 euros per room on 1 August 2011. Can be booked in hotels.es
El Pueyo de Jaca Pirineo Aragones  09
By Francisco José - Published in: Hotels & Clubs
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