TRY ON THE CONDITION OF THE BARBARIANS ESTABLISHED IN ROMAN EMPIRE IN THE IVè CENTURY
Chapitre IV - Læti.
Condition of Læti: 1 ° Læti military colonists
What was the condition of Læti in the Empire? This condition, less known generally than that of Dedititii and Fœderati, deserves to be studied in a more particular way. Læti was before any soldiers, militate, as exactly noticed it Rambach . Their first obligation was the military service, (armatæ militiæ obnoxii), the hereditary obligation, which was passed on from father to son, for them as for the veterans. Every son of Lète had to follow the paternal condition and enter the Roman armies as soon as he had reached the age prescribed by the law, that is his eighteenth year ; he was even subjected to it in case her alone mother was of origin létique . He could not more escape in this obligation than the colonist in the loads which pressed on him by the fact of his birth. The son of Lète which refused the service was pursued as deserter as well as the son of a veteran and returned by strength under flags. The text of the constitution of emperors Arcadius and Honorius, dated the year 400 and sent to Stilicon, is formal: that all Lète, Allaman, Sarmate, deserter, or son of veteran or other, subjected to the law of the recruitment and intended to be incorporated into legions, receives the education and the army training . The severity of the legislator admits no excuse, no exemption (Nulla igitur sit excusationis occasio). The assimilation is complete; she rereleases loads imposed in Provided as rights which are recognized by them. Of Cange, in its glossary, made also by the military service their distinctive character . The colonies of Læti, intended as those of veterans to assure the defense of the borders against the raids of the enemies from the outside, were real military colonies with this difference that, instead of being consisted of Roman , former citizenssoldiers belonging to legions, they were trained by Barbarians or by foreigners called to replace the provincial the number of which was not any more enough for filling the frames of the armies. The Code Théodosien contains only three or four relative texts in Provided, but the imperial constitutions on the veterans are much more numerous, much more explicit, and certain report which existed between all of them authorize to apply to the first ones, at least to a certain extent, what we know about the last ones.
The veterans, established on the edges of the Rhine and the Danube, received concessions of lands, generally abandoned and uncultivated, which we called terræ limitaneæ, because of their nearby position of the border. It was, says to us Godefroi , the former use at Romain and that went back to the last times of the Republic. These lands were territories either annexed, that is taken on the enemy, or occupied by the soldiers and whose ownership, or finally the open fields they claimed and without owner, indicated under the name of vacant lands, terræ vacant, and whom the treasury could have. They were granted to them to put them in culture; they had the enjoyment of it and could pass on her to their children, but only to their sons and not to their daughters, because of the obligation of the military service which was attached to it. They lived on the product of these lands for which the State demanded no fee, because they were frank of any tax and considered as a pay, stipendium, veterans so colonized not stopping being a member of the army active and dedicating the arms to the defense of the ground of the homeland. The Roman government, to facilitate them the putting in exploitation, made them the advance of a sum of money, a pair of oxen and diverse seeds . They also had the right to make the trade to increase their resources and could acquire new lands which, not going any more into the category of terræ limitaneæ, were subjected to the tax .
The regular organization and permanent of veterans' military colonies on the borders dates certainly first ones centuries of the Empire. She took a big development in the IIIth century, in the time of Alexandre Sévère and in the time of Probus, when the invasions became chronic and when the natural barriers were not any more enough to protect the bordering provinces. Lampride, the biographer of Alexandre Sévère, gives us some interesting details to the foundation of these colonies, to their essential character and the purpose that proposed the emperors by establishing them military . In this time, there was another Roman territory beyond the Rhine, the more or less spread territory following the walking and the progress of legions. It was this conquered territory on the enemy who became the property of the generals and the soldiers, but to defend him: so he was inalienable. We thought that the best means to interest the soldiers in the territory defense was of them to return it owners. We supplied them on top of the cattle and slaves for the culture, being afraid that the shortage of workers or the old age of the colonists did not make abandon these nearby fields of the country of the Barbarians, which had been a misfortune and a shame for the Empire. Later, in the IVth century, veterans' colonies were not any more established on the conquered territories, but in provinces themselves; the border had moved back to the Rhine; the Rhine was often crossed itself by the barbaric troops which carried the iron and the fire up to the heart of the Gaul. It was necessary to multiply the colonies; We created, we developed the institution of Læti intended to complete and to strengthen that of the veterans. How we could doubt the narrow and intimate report which existed between these two institutions, when a rescript of Honorius and Théodose the Young person, concerning terræ limitaneæ, says formally that these lands held by private individuals must be put back to Gentiles, or, for lack of Gentiles, to veterans . We shall see in the chapter as the condition of Gentiles was similar to that of Læti .
Læti, in charge of the defense of the borders, was likened to the Roman troops Confined on the edges of the Rhine or the Danube, and indicated under the names of limitanei, castellani, ripenses . It was, we saw him, the last degree of the militia, (deterior militia). They were subjected to all the duties compulsory for the former legionaries, as the preparation and the interview of roads, bridges, aqueducts, camps, cuttings off, dikes raised on the route of the river to protect the bordering territory against the raids of the enemy . Such had been previously the condition of the princes or the barbaric leaders fallen to the power of Romain and incorporated into the lower militia by a favor which did not still share the rest of the nation . Böcking does not hesitate to believe, and in it maybe he goes too far, that the disciplinary punishments and the corporal punishments imposed on the recruits made among Dedititii were not saved in Læti . Placed in Notitia under the upper command of master of the militia of the infantry, magister militum præsentalis has leaves peditum, they do not come, indeed, that in the back row in the enumeration of the various bodies of which consisted the militia of the Empire . Præposituræ into which all the military colonies of the Læti went was dignities of a lower order, minoris laterculi, which had been at first of the quaestor, then passed in the attributions of master of the militia. Præposituræ or Præfecturæ Lœtorum established only a part of the legion and did not become confused with her, as well as believed it certain authors; they distinguished themselves from it as the troop, as the detachment and the auxiliary body. The figure of one thousand or fifteen hundred men attributed to the staff of every prefecture of Læti, according to a text of Constantin Porphyrogénète , must be exaggerated, because the legion itself, from Constantin, did not contain a largest number of soldiers .
 Rambach, Of Lœtis, p. 25. - Roth, Beneficialwesen, Erlangen, on 1850. Die Lœti, Zweites Buch, p. 46-50.
 Vopiscus, Lives. Prodrunk, c. XVI.
 Böcking, II, p. on 1064. - Ulpien, V, 8. 24. - easily digestible, Of statu hom., I, 5. - Gaius, I, 78, 67.
 Cod. Théod., VII, tit. 20, law 12.
 Of Cange, Glossy lipstick. Med. and inf. latinit. Læti.
 Godefroi, Cod. Théod., VII, Of veteranis.
 Cod. Théod., VII, tit. 20, law 3. - the follis, the currency of cuivra weighed the third of the ounce and represented the twelfth part of the silique which was itself the twenty-fourth part of the solidus aureus or the golden penny. The golden penny in the IVth century was worth approximately 13 francs, which would carry the value of the follis in a little less than 5 centimes. - V. Becker and Marquardt, III, 2, p. 24. - Cod. Théod., VII, tit. 20, law 11. - Roth, Beneficialwesen, p. 50.
 Cod. Théod., VII, tit. 20, law 3. - ibidem, XI, tit. 1, law 28.
 Lampride, Lives. Alex. Severus, c. LVIII. - Cf. Sybel, p. 43-44.
 Cod. Théod., VII, tit. 15, law 1.
 V. the chapter VI, Of Gentilibus.
 Perreciot, t. I, liv. V, 2nd part ., p. 404.
 Perreciot, t. I, liv. V, 2nd part ., p. 404.
 Lampride, Lives. Alex. Severus, c. LVIII.
 Böcking, II, Of Lœtis, p. on 1068. - Eumène, Panég. of Constance, c. IX.
 Böcking, p. 119, 122.
 Constantin Porphyrogénète, In thematibus. Byzantine collection, Bonn.
 Naudet, t. II, 3rd part ., c. V, p. 157.