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/NNov 15:39

lightartillery

Déja studied in detail here:Les uniforms of the light artillery on 1812 / 1814

The light artillery is in fact the only unity of artillery on horseback of the US ARMY, recreated in 1808, it was with the regiment of artillerists the only professional elements of the American army in the release of the war.

As only unity of artillery on horseback, this regiment acquired a status of elite within the army and will be kept during the conflict.

Quite as the regiments of artillery on foot, the unity will be scattered on the various theaters during the war.

The uniform:

His uniform consisted of a short blue jacket with three rows of yellow buttons, a white or blue panties according to the season with ankle-boots or shoes when the wide pants are carried. The shako is of the model "Yeoman" which we find at the 1st rifle. Collars are equipped with yellow laces, the officers carry the red scarf around the waist as well as the shoulder straps. Trumpets carry a holding red but got away in a identical way from the troop.

In 1814, the regiment received its new uniforms which in fact consisted of the adoption of the "tombstone" shako, the rest remained unchanged. Grey dresses of fortune were also given in detachment operating on the northwest border undergoing the same constraints uniformologiques as the infantry.

The shako "tombstone" carried a small brass plate different from that of the classic artillery in the shape of ecu surmounted of an eagle. The shako was surmounted, besides, by a green plume instead of the white and carried a yellow cord with yellow pompom.

There n is no representation of a non-commissioned officer on the board, but we can suppose that he distinguished itself besides from the troop by the port of yellow shoulder straps, from a red belt around the waist and from a straight sword. Belts are represented blacks but could be white because it is a question of one of older regiment of the US army.

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/NNov 15:30

USartilleryhowitzer

After the standard and the heavy box, let us be interested in the howitzer and in the light forepart.

The howitzer is a piece of ordnance with curved shooting capable of sending explosive missiles over a wall and thus is very useful for a seat or to fire at an entrenched enemy. The Gribeauval system used by the American artillery existed in several calibres but the Americans also had their own calibres of howitzer. The most common were 5.5, 6 and 8 bronze or iron made thumbs.

One of the particular aspects of the system Gribeauval was the decrease of the space included between the coal nut and the soul of the standard, this economy of space as well as the abandonment of the exterior designs of the barrel was translated by a weighty economy and an increase of the mobility of rooms made a little lighter.

Every battery contained at least one of these pieces of ordnance beside the classic artillery. Of a weight and a dimensions lower than a classic standard which weighed 1.4 to 1.6 tons for the standard of 12 books, the howitzer weighed 930 kg and could be towed by a light forepart and a harness of 4 horses. For the howitzer of 6 thumbs his calibre was of 165mm and its missile achieved 11kg. The length of the wooden drill allowed to make burst the missile in different times and nécéssitait a real know-how to be precise. The hide is smaller and possesses flasks higher than classic standard. Quite as the standard he can move by means of wooden levers which are big wooden bars and which with or without extends her (long rope which we attach to the standard to pull him) allowed to turn and to move the standard at the rate of the infantry which the room had to support.

HowitzerCannon

The light forepart does not possess box, it was brought in America by the French people of the expeditionary force which fought to Yorktown and was copied or used by the Americans; he possesses two wheels on both sides of a central part on which settles the element to be towed. The latter hangs on simply by threading the hole in the base of the hide in one pickets in metal fixed to the forepart. This very simple system has nevertheless an inconvenience: he obliges to lift the piece of ordnance to hang on him.

The English system of fast catcher by a simple simpler and more effective hook will be finally adopted by most of artilleries in the years which followed.

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/NNov 17:06

I have already treated with the artillery and with his organization here The American artillery of the war of 1812

Here The American artillery in the war of 1812

Maintaining a more detailed presentation of the material of the American artillery that is artillery of course but also harnesses, boxes with ammunitions, cars, foreparts and other forms of transport used by the US artillery during the war of 1812.

The American system of artillery is based on the French system Gribeauval since the war for independence had allowed its deployment on the ground of the United States. The efficiency which this system had showed was superior by far to all which existed then. The standardization was the magic word of this system, every wheel could serve to replace an other one, foreparts could tow as well artillery as cars, everything a declension of materials of artillery could from then on be compatible between them and the manufacturing standards were also simplified there. Artillery were also endowed with a reticule adjusting screw, with a notch of aim on the roll of the standard (end of the barrel) allowing a more precise shooting and especially an ease to adjust the shooting after the first blow. The decrease of the space soul of the tube / coal nut which we name the wind, is going to increase the precision of rooms while decreasing the length of the standard in himself. Making it rooms win of the precision and lose weight. The standard of 6 books is more precise and has a practical reach longer than that of the English standard owed ystème Blomfield, 730 m against 550m.

He is sure that the Americans used rooms of French and English origin dating the war for independence but that they also produced their own material by copying more or less what existed then.

France, former and archetypal country of the artillery allied, also inspired the textbook of training of the American artillery, as it will be the case for the infantry.

USartillerycariage

We ignore exactly which type of forepart was used, the former French model or the American version copied to the system Gribeauval. Wheels used for the American artillery are different from those fixed to the French artillery, we considered necessary to use models more resistant than those used on Europe, most of the American wheels are strengthened along the tread giving an impression of studded wheel seen of the exterieur.

hs17

Opposite: we see well wheels strengthened on their tread, the climate and the American ground made apparently more fragile the classic wheels used by the Europeans.

We shall admire the sky blue of the paint of the room.

Artillery and material presented in boards are all stemming from the French systéme Gribeauval, but it is possible that he were made locally by him "ordnance department" in a different way.

The light artillery built and used "Wurst" for the travel of his batteries that is boxes and foreparts were equipped to receive seated astride artillerymen above.

The American materials were painted usually in light blue or in "French green" that is a mixture of ochre and black giving more a yellow mat color than green.

Boxes: the Americans did not possess forepart with box as the English people; they could matter only on the small box fixed to the standard itself and to the big box in two or four wheels for the approvisionement in ammunitions. Every standard of 6 books took 18 knocks to being able to begin to pull everything of suiste without waiting for its main box, every standard of 6 books or less possessed a big box which was placed in about fifty meters behind the standard in fire position. The small box fixed to the standard, was picked up and placed to him set back from the room in about twenty meters of the standard to protect the artillerymen in case of direct blow in the box with ammunitions.

Every big box of 6 books took 92 knocks among which 30 boxes with grapeshot and 62 full coal nuts. The rooms of bigger calibres needed more boxes because the more important ammunitions took more place in the arrangements of the box. Every big box was pulled by four horses, but so necessary, we could add to it two more.

Every battery or bulk of artillery took a forge of campaign to being able to change irons of the horses of traitss which or would be incapable to fire the enormous loads. She was equipped with two safes for tools, iron, and coal, the home was activated by a big souflet activated by a lever.

USARTILLERY2

Boards of the author.

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/NNov 21:33

lowercanadamilitia2

The sedentary militia of Low Canada was the last line of defence of this region, it worked a little as the provincial militia of Upper Canada but had a different organization. Every parish recruited a company managed by a captain. Often a prominent person of the community and being a member of former families of Piece of news - France. These parishes belonged to divisions, herself organized in three Districts: Montreal, Quebec and Three Rivers. The city of living Quebec headquarters of the militia. The majority of the men of this sedentary militia were French-speaking and catholic where from the particular system of the parochial unity. The militias of these parishes had to train periodically for the manipulation of weapons and for the practice of the tight order. She concerned all the men from 16 to 60 years old then 50 years, fit for service.

The most easterly Districts or mainly English-speaking "Eastern Tonwship district", were organized as Upper Canada with a unity by county where every regiment grouped until 6 battalions or companies with which sometimes was connected a unity of voluntary cavalry. The sedentary militia also had to serve as men's reservoir in which we would draw to train the battalions of the militia of elite as well as the light companies.

The sedentary militia of Low Canada could supply in theory to has 60000 men in 80 battalions, but in the alone facts 16 battalions grouping 5000 fighters will participate closely or remotely in the fights.

BUXTON-Partisans-Along-the-MohawkThe militiamen been used to the conditions extrèmes of this region were often of excellent hunter and thus good shooters, most of the time they supplied their own armament but should the opposite occur a musket was them pretee and must be returned from the end of the training. These men very attached to the values which made Piece of news - France at the appropriate time supported badly the conscription woman serving in the militia during the period French as under the English diet.

But their attitude to the crown was always tinged with distrust. The English people were for them at best only invaders in the worst of the oppressors. Indeed the constitutional act of 1791 which established Low Canada and parliamentary regime in these provinces, protected the French language and the freedom of religion but established the Anglican religion and the Englishman as the only one official language. While they are and by far the most numerous, the French speakers represented by The party Canadians collided regularly with the ideas of the party English Tories and his texts were often rejettés by the legislative advice of the province.

Member of the majority party but without real power in front of the English executif, the French-speaking population was nevertheless in 1811 the object of particular attention on behalf of the new governor general of Canada, George Prevost, who made name Canadians to key positions and found in the catholic clergy a weighty ally. Making it Prévost known how to incur the good graces of the French speakers and been able to make cross his laws on the mobilization of the militia. The men accèptèrent more easily to integrate their unity, but acts of revolt as to Lachine proved that the situation remained tense.

Skillfully maneuvered by the English propaganda, the French-speaking militiamen accéptèrent to dash in the fight beside English and pushed away the American raids on their territory. Their main feats of arm are the battle of Chateaugay, Lacolle Mills.

Contrary to what have him would have been able to believe this union between French speaker and English speaker to push away the invasion was only passing and from the war of ended 1812 and the loose American threat, the tensions started up again with renewed vigor and resulted in 1837 in the revolt of the patriots, but this is another history...

The uniform:

The militiaman did not carry a uniform because he n yen n had not of available, instead he left to the fight with his thick condom, his Indian boots and his woolen hat. Condoms majoritairment intoxicate could be of brown, blue color or green darkened. Hats were majoritairment red in the District of Quebec, blue in the District of Montreal and white for that of Three Rivers. v7n1ptr1

Often condoms were enclosed in the size of a scarf of color, belts were black or white, muskets were weapons personal or given by the crown.

The most endowed in explorations and the most independent joined the body of the travelers which shared the inheritance of the trappers and the frank companies of the navy of the war against the English people.

In summer the holding traditional countryman, short jacket intoxicates, straw hat, wide pants and moccasin held place of uniform.

The officers when they carried a uniform had the scarlet holding in parmenture black, green, blue or white. The headgear was mostly a round hat with or without feather. When he n had no uniform they left to the fight with their sabre and one raises collar inherited from the traditions military of Piece of news - France.

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/NNov 13:24

uppercanadamilitia1

For a more detailed study of the militia of Upper Canada postpone you in the article here:La "provincial" militia of high Canada in 1812

Upper Canada was head teacher theatre of military operations of the war of 1812, the majority of the battles took place there and most of the American attempts of invasion aimed at this part of the British colony.

For several reasons, the first one was geographical, Upper Canada shared the longest common border with the United States, the second and the most important were that Upper Canada was more weakly protected than Low Canada, forts and garrisons were lower than it we could find in Montreal or in Quebec. Finally the population was partially established of former inhabitants of the United States who had left for political reasons or economic but who could turn out of invaluable allies in case of invasion. The American top management expected of course a reversal of these population new in their favor, on this point as on the French-speaking populations of Low Canada, they made a mistake heavily.

The militia of Low Canada was divided into counties which took care of the recruitment of the men from 16 to 60 years old to set up regiments. The act of 1808 spécifiat that every militiaman had to bring 6 cartridges, his musket, some powder and balls and that he owed 4 days of annual training. General Brock established the training of the companies of side (two by regiment of militia) and what only the men from 18 to 40 years old could join these companies of elite. The training and the uniform of these men étaitent besides better than those of the normal militia, the companies of side mobilized 1800 men in all during the war, of which 900 only for the peninsula dui The Niagara.

The militia mobilized at the beginning of the conflict 2000 men on 11600 available, mainly western districts. They participated in the campaign of Detroit successfully. But cases of sympathy to see even of West during the invasion of general Hull supports express of a minority of the populations living in the part is to be indicated. The uniform of these militiamen is most of the time the civil holding which they brought with them during the integration of the regiments of militia. The musket and the équippements were supplied by the crown, especially as the fall of Detroit allowed to supply a large number of captured American muskets. A white scarf knotted on the arm held place of emblem, more to avoid any error on behalf of the Indian allies that other thing. A part of these militiamen was nevertheless dressed with the surpluses of uniforms of the 41st regiment of football to give the illusion of soldier's largest number of line to the eyes of the Americans.

The officers of the militia of Upper Canada had to carry the holding in scarlet sheet, with lace yet, collar and sleeves blues, pants or panties with boots or shoes, red scarf around the waist and mostly a "round hat". Very rare the available uniforms were it essentially for the officers and sometimes the non-commissioned officers, for the rest of the men he had to need to content itself with what there was.

A part of the available uniforms was assigned to the battalion of incorporated militia which amounted:L'incorporated incorporated militia battalion from Upper Canada in the war of 1812

They were made most of the time cloth green with collars and red sleeves. The shako when it had did not have a plate there and raised a hunting horn in the place, the plume when there was one was mostly the one companies of the white and red center. Pants were mostly "grey blue" "blue gunmouth" but also other tints. In the units équippées of uniform in 1812 have can quote the companies of side of the militia of York, certain militiamen of the 1st and 4th Lincoln.

Altogether well not much unity during the war was effectively dressed in "red" but nevertheless the uniform reglementaire in the militia of high Canada evolved during the conflict and for the privileged persons which were able to carry him, he had to present the following aspect:

uppercanadamilitia2

Certain counties had big grey condoms by way of uniform, with or without shako (as the 3rd York).

The most easterly counties: Dundas, Stormont and Glengarry, with strong majority Scotswomen, possèdaient regiments or the uniform reflected the membership in the Scottish communeauté. At the end of the American war for independence, the 84th football "Royal Highland Emigrants" Scottish regiment left a big part of its memebres in Canada. This Scot organized the first militias at the instigation of John Mac Donnell in Scottish 1787, the influence of their origin owed strongly transparaitre in their holding. During the war of 1812, American observations specified that regiments of Highlander were present in the zone, what of course was false because no regiment of Highlander was in Canada in the time (with the exception of the second battalion of the 93rd Highlander parked in The new Scotland). Thus the holding of the Scottish militiamen could be a civil holding with Kilt, checkered blue hat, pants in tartan but if red uniforms (or green) were able to be supplies has these counties he is on that the Scottish militiamen added their personal touch (kilt or blue hat). Glengarry light, native of this region, had green uniforms, it is likely that uniforms of this type were able to be supplied to the militiamen of these counties but we ignore in which proportion. The board representing the militias of these counties is thus hypothetical and shows what could look like the Scottish militiamen of this part of Upper Canada. Still he is more than likely that most of them fought in civilian clothes.

uppercanadamilitia3-copie-1

The Scottish units of high Canada in the war of 1812

Certain soldiers were dressed with a uniform green as that of the rifles (1st and 2nd Glengarry, 2nd leeds). The company of rifle of Leeds carried apparement a holding close to that of the American rifles, (green in parmenture black with yellow laces).

In December, 1812, general Prevost made a demand of 4000 red dresses for London. They not commençèrent that has to arrive at the beginning of 1813 and still they were used first and foremost for the battalion of incorporated militia. In May, 1814 1000 of this holding arrived with collars and green or yellow handles. Shakoes were rather rare and of the type "stove pipe" instead the "round hat" was carried as well by the soldiers as by the officers. At the end of 1814 it is possible that several units commençèrent to receive the holding 1812 of the British infantry, the collar and the sleeves were blue, with "belgic" shako and grey pants.

These difficulties of clothing do not generate the militiamen of Upper Canada who knew how to show itself most of the time as high as their task and fought honorably during all the conflict.

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