Photo of Naiel Lemoine

Is there a culture or cultures Trans trans? It is suspected as many answers in one direction than the other. Even the concept of "culture" of the groups transidentitaires deserves to be asked. Bypassing what might resemble a pitfall and opt for the concept of subculture[ 1] trans.

Such a journey to the infinitely small, imagine a crossing of the majority culture - or hegemonic within the meaning of Gramsci[ 2] - in a given society, and dives toward the minority cultures themselves crossed, and composed of cultural movements is establishing sometimes as challenge to the hegemonic model. Talk about multiculturalism would be more appropriate? "Disorder in the culture of "writing Stuart Hall which is considering the effects of the multicultural issue as an electroshock ( "disruptive drive," he said) on our understanding of the culture: "The opposition binary outcome of "enlightenment" - the particularism against universalism, the tradition against modernity - produces a certain way of understanding the culture. There is on one side, the distinct cultures, homogeneous, and self-reliant, strongly welded of traditional companies say "[ 3]. He said: "In this anthropological definition, the cultural tradition saturated all communities, subordinating the individuals to a form of life punished collectively. It is opposed, on the other side, to the "culture of modernity", open, rational, universalist, and individualistic. In the latter, the specific cultural ties should be put aside in public life - guaranteed by the neutrality of the State - so that the individual is free to write his own scenario "[ 4]. We can imagine the possible developments if we are interested in the question of the veil in the public space of the institutions ( "neutral") and the public space of free choice (a relative) : "As the said Laclau, "I cannot say a differential identity without the distinguish of a context, and in the process of manufacture of this distinction, I say the context at the same time"[ 5].

When the trans express a desire for integration and to insert or for challenge and claim they claim a context. One of their politicization beyond their condition of life. The subculture trans is left then apprehend taking into account of the evolution of the fact trans with the definitions of identity contextualizations as much as with the emergence and affirmation of a network of associations and activist, a network of mutual or friendliness. The idea that these subcultures trans are intertwined and mingle, are constructed and are instead deconstructing are not without mentioning a dialectic of cultural movements.

In this sense, we also posit that the social and cultural modeling themselves are of consumer products resulting from cuts out and intra-communities. The action or process of making available ( "put to the scope of all") is, to our field, to make it accessible and intelligible the alternative identities - as set of minorities intentionally constructed both by the majority culture (the more shared) that by subcultures. The Cultural Studies allow the analysis of popular culture or the "general public" as "the whole of minorities intentionally constructed through identity assertions, subculturelles or militant "[ 6]. Said and lived as a minority, claimant and creator of subculture, the group remains in transidentitaire does not least part of the popular culture - therefore mediaculture in some way to consider the whole of the associative fabric and activist transidentitaire is communicating.

The first form of acculturation found by us, is that of the evolution of the figure "trans-genre" in the gay and lesbian groups, evolving in partner unacceptable to feasible then acceptable, to glamourise-e and inducted into-e to displays-e as a spouse or joint finally. This evolution reflects less a mode of meeting emotional and sexual that the negotiations between subcultures which intersect and ironwork. Such a interbreeding, we think it is possible that the romantic encounter participated in and the building of the concept activist (designated by the acronym LGBTIQ…) in its cultural dimension. The television series, the talk shows and reality TV, would be the echoes, the witnesses and the stakeholders of these cross-adapt differently. In a paraphrase in part Eric Mace (The imaginary media, 2006), we think of Princess Xena , Absolutely Fabulous, Queer as folk, Ally McBeal DVD., Friends, Sex in the city, The L World, Cold box, The Experts, FBI door disappeared, Gray's Anatomy, Dr House, Nip & Tuck, Dirty sexy money, Ugly Betty, True Blood or even Hit & Miss, in an approach "comprehensive" of these media and not only "denouncing" (and sometimes up to the blindness).

Note that now, in the aftermath of a program on the trans', it is no longer only the trans' which react and speak out on the issue on the social networks and community media but also the communities "allied" (gay, lesbian, bi, anarchists, libertarians, etc. ) and the university engaged in gender studies. All of these alliances "natural" or "cyclical" more or less well (desa- )approved are to give a point of view since they are located, since these subcultures is permeate each other. Posited as an exercise to the subculture that trans is in a minority context LGTIQ…, then there is a great probability that the proponents of this culture to be able to articulate see to practice the culture of "above" and so on up to reach the context of a modern culture, hegemonic. In contrast, it is not obvious that the cultivation of "above" have the will or the capacity to understand the cultures trans. To put it another way, if those-of the-outside we include it is because we let them understand us. In the case of some of the conversations on topics trans, with a language trans and codes of narration trans, the one-of-outside will understand absolutely nothing, even though we're talking about the same language. It will be all the more the feeling of having entered a few points and is not going to be concerned about more than that out of what he has not understood, because he does not know "that he did not understand ".

Jacob Hale[ 7], author of many works to be classified in the Transgender Studies, has asked the rules for the use of those who write about the trans[ 8]. The first points are saying what should be in whole or part a epistemology of studies on the transidentite to outsiders:

1. Dreading your subject with humility: you are not experts on the transsexual, transgender, transsexual is contrary or the trans. The transsexuals, them, the are.

2. Ask your position and the way in which you exercise the power, power that we have not (including the powers of access, the legal power, institutional, material power… ). Ask how this affects what you see and what you say. What is your interest and what is the origin of your interest in this question?

3. Beware of the reproduction of the following elements of speech (that Sandy Stones articulated in "The Empire Strikes Back"[ 9] And reminding us of a speech colonial) : the exotisation ( "fascination with the exotic " ), the refusal of the subjectivity; a lack of access to speech dominant, followed by a rehabilitation of this same speech.

4. Do not erase our votes, while ignoring what we say and write, or by the deformations coarse (as Hausman did at Sandy Stone and Kate Bornstein), for instance by denying our academic references or insistence on the condition of having academic references if we want to be taken seriously.

Open a parenthesis here on the way in which the media, and the university to a certain extent, they touched the ground in the early days of the associative support. The television was looking for ego (of people ready to tell, and even magnet can tell), distinguishing the public associations of the cabaret and of prostitution. Stigma that the trans will reproduce.

The students were on their side in information seekers, wishing to be put in contact with the responsible associative. Their presentation, the more often clumsy ( "union minimum "fun-it) was silent as the reality of their work that the need for a "return". A suspicion" school" came to me quickly: the only choice of the subject (a "good" subject) is sufficient to guarantee "the average" or more[ 10]. On one side the media deal with the field of the typologies already constructed in the light of their specific requests, and of the other students adopt the exercise of style hope surcharge or promising for the more seasoned. "Some came in late in thesis as conquerors on an island to colonize. They came see their future patients consenting" [ 11], remembers MR. -Y. Thomas. Since then, other contacts with students have been held with the creation of the association without Counterfeiting in Marseilles in 2005: in Psychiatry, right, in Anthropology, Art[ 12]. Most were in before a culture of the various epistemologies of feminists that it was question of the kind. Other students are, however, to be very lacking: no note-taking in nearly three hours of maintenance for example, or even request derisory and finally unexplained (the first name of birth of the interviewee) after several hours of labor with regard to transsexual is contrary to law. Such examples were unfortunately the more numerous, and many of the directors of research would be amazed to learn how the "subjects" or "objects" trans have been addressed or treated. There are even "testimony", in a doctoral thesis, a pioneer of the field which has never worked to tel.

Continue with the recommendations of benevolent Jacob Hale:

5. Be careful with our words. They are very often included in the conversations that we have in our communities. We can participate in conversations that overlap within multiple communities, for example, our communities trans, our scholarly communities (both those that are interdisciplinary than those who are disciplinary petty), the feminist communities, the queer communities, communities of color. Be careful with these conversations, their places, and our places within the community structures, structures of power. Otherwise, you do not understand our words.

6. Do we stay only not, do not represent us, we or our speech, such as monolithic or unique. Look carefully at each use of the singular and the plural.

7. Do not blindly quote the "experts" non-transsexuals, for example Harry Benjamin, Robert Stoller, Leslie Lothstein, Janice Raymond, and Virginie-Prince or Marjorie Garber. Apply them the same sense of criticism as to anyone else.

9. When you talk about the speech MTF[ 13], OF phenomena, of experiences, their lives, the subjectivities, of modes of realization, etc, visit the explicit throughout your demonstration. THE indicate one or two times is not sufficient to undermine the whole of paradigms on the issue. Do not dispose of the occasional references to the speech transsexual FtM, of phenomena, of experiences, their lives, the subjectivities, modes of realization, etc, without asking you what is the purpose of these references and whether or not these purposes are legitimate.

10. Please be aware that if you judge us in reference to your political agenda (or your diaries) taken as a measure or standard, in particular without even ask you if your agenda could enter in conflict with our or pass in front of the our, that it is just as legitimate (or illegitimate) for us to use our political agenda as item of measurement allow us to judge your work.

11. Place the emphasis on what watch the transsexual, transgender, transsexual is contrary, you fact to you, and not: what is this you said on the subjects trans?

12. Ask yourself if you can travel in our universe trans. Otherwise, you probably won't enter what we are talking about. Remember that we live most of the time in a world non-transsexual and that as a result, we have probably access to what you are talking about.

13. Do you not imagine that you can write on the certain psychotropic substances of transsexuality, the figure of the transsexual, the speech or positions of the transsexual subjects, without writing about the transgender subjectivities, their lives, the experiences, the modes of realization. Ask yourself what kind of relationship there is between these categorical constructions. That is to say also what are the implications from the point of view of what you write in comparison with that which you wouldn't write not on another subject.

14. Do you not imagine that there is only one certain psychotropic substances of transsexuality, a single digit" of "Transsexual, or a single speech transsexual to any place.

15. If you are dealing with your work closely enough to be in anger, with a detailed critique, don't take it as a rejection, irritability, a delusional disorder or the effects of the poisoning by testosterone. It is a * gift * .

With Jacob Hale we dealt with a certain "intimacy" of groups trans. It is regrettable, however the french side a lack of recognition, when this is not the rejection, of the theory end of the field. Enmity kill and distort the debates and their developments in such a way that the "baby" is immune never when the bath water is changed. The Internet allows the dissemination of knowledge but also knowledge of nicknames. The result is written clumsy or peremptory assertions which will laws. So we are with the confusion such as "sexual identity and the identity of kind it is more of the-same". There is no more to see the denial of critical inputs of feminists and their various epistemologies. It is regrettable and "that is not much to say" sings Mickey 3D (and it is not going to laugh at). You can also read assimilations fast on what would be the trans or non-primary and secondary, or the "evil" that would represent these "militants trans in anger", a phrase in the right line of the philosophy of Colette Chiland and its peers. One should not speak of transphobie not more, etc.

In order to not resemble the heroes of Gustave Flaubert it must engage in the requirement and in excellence. And not such a Bouvard and Pecuchet a cultural cause of disasters by an inability to understand that it cannot be improvised agronomist, sociologist, musician, astronomer, physicist, professor, gymnast, philosopher, cook, mathematician, etc. overnight without learn and understand, and on the only faith to a belief any personal. The cultures trans must not inflict this against what they are fighting.


[ 1] Within the meaning of cultures underground (underground) and non-sub-cultures because the French translation led to a pejorative connotation. See Hervé Glevarec, Eric Macé, Eric Maigret (ed. ), Cultural Studies. Anthology, Armand Colin, et al. " Mediacultures", 2008.

[ 2] The cultural domination of a group or class, and the role played by the daily practices and the collective beliefs in the systems of domination. Read between other texts: "The organization of the school and the culture", in Europe, no. 3, March 1955, translation of Mr. Soriano; "The science and the scientific ideologies", in man and the company, no. 13, July-seven. 1969.

[ 3] Identities and Cultures, policies of Cultural Studies, expanded edition, Paris: editions Amsterdam, 2008, p. 395.

[ 4] Ibidem.

[ 5] Stuart Hall citing Ernesto Laclau: Emancipation(s) Radical Thinkers , verso, 2007.

[ 6] Eric Macé, op. cit. , p. 42. The sociologist returns to the article of Patrick Cute: "Richard Hoggart to Cultural studies', in spirit, March-April, 2002 ; The Guern, Philippe (Dir. ), the Cults media. Culture fan works and cults, pure, 2002.

[ 7] read his biography, [Online], http://www.csun.edu/~hcphi002/

[ 8] They were listed by Sandy Stone, "Suggested Rules for Non-Transsexuals Writing about serviced transsexuals, Transsexuality, Transsexualism, gold Trans ____.", [Online], http://sandystone.com/hale.rules.html (translated from the English by Arnaud Alessandrino).

[ 9] Sandy Stone, "The Empire Strikes Back. A Posttranssexual Manifesto", Body Guards; Routledge 1991.

[ 10] These passages will be sometimes written to the first person because they narrate a personal experience and subjective.

[ 11] comments collected in maintenance. Let us be clear that it has met with many students during its hotlines in the Center Gay and Lesbian Community of Paris in the period 1996-1998 in the framework of the media organized by the ASB. I joined the team in support of this association end of 1996, and myself made the experience of this exercise practice imposes. I had just to put my studies in parentheses at the beginning of the third cycle, but before these students i was constantly reduced to a "state of patient" despite the evidence that I gave to a university culture.

[ 12] These contacts took place either with Maud-Yeuse Thomas, on myself, and sometimes both of us.

[ 13] MTF = Male to Female / ftm = Female to Male.

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Text submitted to copyright: excerpt from a publication coming soon.