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Thursday, December 13, 2012 4 13 /12 /Dec /2012 6:41 PM

Mythical Hotels, houses of exception, castles, prestigious establishments, real property of the State or by private individuals, disused barracks and prisons, there is everything.

Despite the crisis in the real estate market, the enthusiasm of foreign investors for the acquisition of property and other real property or public or private on the hexagon, seems to maintain while creating anger and concern on the part of many French who criticize to the State to squander the heritage to repay the "debt" and do not submit more administrative constraints to the purchasers.

France drew the covetousness of large fortunes in the world: from the businessman to the Amir, the big boss, who withdrew and wished to convert, the broker of the City who acquires a property to go its old days or where people can enjoy themselves, all have decided to invest in the stone or the earth and to enjoy "the French art of living", to take advantage of the privileged geographical situation of the France and to benefit from attractive prices in comparison with other international markets, such as London, New York, Hong Kong… ".

Now, after the Qataris, the Lebanese, the Africans and the Russians, it is the turn of the

Chinese investors.

The Chinese Rush

At the beginning of years 90, the Chinese are starting by repurchase of trade of textile in the neighborhood of the Sentier in Paris and then, of the Maghreb started in Belleville. With surpluses of foreign exchange reserves and of public or private assets very high, China has a capacity of investment extremely powerful. In 2010/2011, France became the first receiver in value with 5722 million dollars (source Rhodium Group)

Some Chinese investors have chosen to resume units of French production, with economic benefits for the France very mixed. Others have succumbed to the shots of course and have invested in the vineyard, seduced by the notoriety of the french wines, their prestige but also in the concern to develop the consumption of French wine in China.

In recent years, 24 wineries have been redeemed in the Bordeaux region by Chinese investors (China is also the first importer of Bordeaux with 70 million bottles, either 10% of production), 2 other properties have been acquired recently in Burgundy, including the famous Chateau Gevrey-Chambertin , yielded to 8 million euros to a Chinese billionaire, owner of game rooms in Macau. This transaction has also provoked strong reactions among the grape growers in the region who had watches purchasers by providing 5 million € for the redemption of this grand cru in " sides of Night" (original selling price: €7 million ).

There is also the case of the Domain Mouth (Chateauneuf du Pape, side of the Rhône plan-of-god) in the Vaucluse which lack of heirs concerned has sold his farm to a partner franco-chinese, Field Dong Creations Industries for the purpose of "consolidate its market shares in China" and "renovate his field".

Vineyard In the middle, the massive arrival of these Chinese investors is apprehended as a phylloxera of a new kind, the one who will be the death knell of the traditional know-how and the strong reputation of great vintages. Except the fact that the operation is maintained by the French winemakers, the investment has little economic value and does that outbid the price from the vineyard to yield, limiting or condemning as well access to potential investors Europeans.

The Chinese side, acquire a castle in France sounds such as a romance in the former empire of the middle and hold a wine estate granted to their investment, a sure value.

In any event, the French remain the first investors in the vineyard and are often local owners wishing to be open to the international.

"A great sell-out" of the French heritage?

When in 2010, Bercy announced that the State would sell 1700 real property by 2013 in order to reduce the "debt", many are offended by this "approach thankless" then that for decades, this practice is borrowed by all successive governments, except that the divestiture programs were established for a year.

The majority of these goods are between other administrative buildings disused due to the recent reforms carried out in the reorganization of the judiciary and the military (gendarmerie, barracks, prisons, courts, other sites), the State administration of taxation….. whose servicing is extremely costly and unnecessary, as well as "prestigious buildings and extraordinary" (Castles de Bridoire, Maveyre Park, home of the Red Devils (ex-officers' mess), the "Small Montjoux" on the edge of Lake Leman…etc).

Among the buyers, the local communities that can do play their right of first refusal and private buyers or foreign. The state account recover 2.2 billion euros on these sales.

"Ô rage, o despair"! The State squandered the "jewelry of family", "everything is for sale", "save the history"! The resentment didn't have long to wait: some fearing a loss of identity, reminiscent of a colonization to the Chinese and other predicting "a hangover blown when France wakes up".

Simply, for years, the France turned to aspirin, with an economy lagging, for years, the France diminishes!

The only effective cure is well the nutrient intake of "infusions d'ide * " which would allow the country to come out of its semi-comatose state

INNOVATION: This is the theme of the campaign that come to launch the French Agency for international investment (SUBMITTING) and the national institute of industrial protection (INPI) in order to attract new foreign investors.

Say yes to France

20,000 Foreign companies operating in the hexagon, providing more than 2 million jobs and 30% of exports.

It is in refining its image tarnished by many shots to the alien: the 35 hours, the strikes, a taxation heavy… .and by turning in a mockery of all these prejudices that France would be able to seduce new foreign investors.

The potential buyers targets are: the United States, Canada, China, India and Brazil.

Use of the testimony of foreign companies already located and submit all the strengths to persuade potential international industrial potential of the french, this is the aim of the current broadcast video on the net: "Say yes to France".

In fact, according to the CEO Europe of the ZTE (Chinese telecommunication equipment manufacturer), Lian Qiang, "the French labor is very well qualified, experienced and easy to mentor" and the France enjoys "a significant capacity for innovation". For the CEO of the Danish group Novo Nordisk (pharmaceutical industry), "France has become one of the country where the tax treatment of R&D is the most generous".

The takeover of NFM Technologies and of Blue Silicones in the Lyon region (Group Rhodia) by Chinese investors has allowed us to preserve the jobs, to stimulate investment and start from the conquest of the Chinese market.

In other regions, especially in Britain, the Chinese have taken over the companies in the agri-food thus avoiding the disappearance of enterprises. In parallel, Chinese banks are following their investors at the settlements.

The campaign of INNOVATION is of course size. Encourage foreign firms to establish themselves on the territory also requires some adjustments and reforms, in matters of the right to property real estate, tax, customs, social.

The measures envisaged and possible

The unfortunate experience of the company MacCormick France in Saint Dizier acquired by the public company of Chinese tractors YTO has demonstrated that the French legislation was not adapted to regulate the transactions with China. In effect, MacCormick is one of the leaders in the manufacture of transmission for tractors. During the takeover, YTO had announced the launch of the production of its tractors to Saint Dizier but he did nothing. There is a fear that the technology MacCormick has joined the assembly lines in YTO in China.

Another example: Currently, the projects for the creation of "Parks of activities franco-chinese" are in progress in order to facilitate the establishment of Chinese SMES, to create jobs in situ. In parallel, a symmetric park must be built in China. Viable Project or not? The Chinese they will hire themselves to have a industrial activity in France where these parks will be used to facilitate the Chinese imports?

At the present time, the project of "activity park franco-chinese" planned to Chateauroux is not ready to see the day: discontinuance of the initial Chinese partner of the ITC and the city to the last minute, not enough nominations to Chinese SMES, these recent requiring the layout and equipment of the site…

In order to ensure the commitments of the purchasers, penalties should be imposed up to the cancellation of the sale.

Impose an additional tax on the property tax and capital gains real estate cashed by the non-resident for tax: an aberration

In July 2012 Ayrault, the government announced its intention to introduce "a measure who submits to the levies social (15.5 %) the property tax and capital gains of real estate source french cashed by the non-resident for tax. Up to this law, non-residents were beyond the reach of the CSG and CRDS, another supposed to fill the abyss of the social security ". (Source SICAVONLINE).

An announcement clumsy: Calculation income wise and juicy but yet would it have taken anticipate the reactions, not agencies or real estate developers, who without much surprise consider this measure as "a enormity", "obscene and unjustified", but of these non-resident for tax to which it will have to explain why they will have to submit to the levies social which in fact do not involve. How to explain to one British, one American that he should participate in the bail-out of social security coffers in..then that home, the social protection is almost non-existent, and that the retirement funds are predominantly private?

It would have sufficed to gradually enhance the rate of taxation which are subject non-residents: member States of the EU: 19 %, "33.33 % if the non-resident for tax purposes is domiciled in another State which is not a state or territory non co-operative" etc.

This measure risk to curb the enthusiasm of many potential foreign buyers but also, to compensate for the loss to the value, cause a price increase on the resale for cashing any of even the more-planned initial value before the transaction. Which means all in all, that the property will be even less accessible to French residents in general.

The right of property in France must change

To enable future generations access to the property, these are the concepts of usus, fructus and abusus, in their entirety and in the duration over which the legislators will need to consider:

  • By imposing limited periods in the form of a lease of 30, 60, 90 years
  • Participation of French residing in France in the capital of a SCI
  • Limit the speculation in the resales of real property by imposing a expertise designed to estimate the actual value of the transaction and in cases exceeding of x%, subjecting a surtax on the more-value. ( =more-value - 19% - 15.15 % -surtax)

France for sale? France is certainly not to sell. It is in the midst of transformation. The acquisition of some of its property by foreign investors is more rewarding than to deplore. After having suffered a massive rural exodus in the last five decades, she attended gradually to the repopulation of the Commons, not thanks to demographic performance of aboriginal people, but by the attractiveness and the charm that it exercised in the eyes of foreigners. It causes of lightning strikes without be a executioner of course, offers strong moments in authenticity, a quality of life that many envy him and knows how to be hospitable to them who know the love. France has a lot of benefits and by its landforms varied as by its geographical situation.

Say yes to France, it is first of all to accept to share to become stronger, this is not a colonization and it is for this reason that France will also install its conditions to its new actors including from the Celestial Empire.

In fact, the effort will have to be mutual. Under the speech of cooperation is often conceal this thirst for power and greed among the Chinese investors, enclosing the interlocutor easily French in his bubble of naivety. The Chinese are acting on their country before all, that is in any case of the youngest age that they are investing for the homeland. The speed of their expansion is fear for the West that the China arises any or later in state "overlord" in Europe. Except if they are able to "play" with the Chinese legislation by focusing primarily on their own interests.

Although it is a real estate is hardly delocalisable and its environment even less.

Finally for those who may have a short memory, France was built with foreigners to be today what it is: a multicultural society, young and quite inclined to welcome on its soil Americans, Brazilians, Indians…determined to do with it, a little way.

Written by Chantal DOUPEUX

* France for sale: France is to sell

* IDE: foreign direct investment

Http://www.leparisien.fr/lyon-69000/rhone-une-societe-franco-chinoise-rachete-un-vignoble-14-09-2012-2164642.php

Http://www.lemonde.fr/economie/article/2012/12/03/les-chinois-a-l-assaut-du-vignoble-francais_1799212_3234.html

Http://patrimoine.lefigaro.fr/etrangers-mains-patrimoine-francais.html

Http://www.lefigaro.fr/conjoncture/2012/11/25/20002-20121125artfig00044-l-etat-francais-veut-seduire-les-investisseurs-etrangers

Http://www.lefigaro.fr/immobilier/2010/02/09/05002-20100209artfig00006-la-vente-du-patrimoine-de-l-etat-reprend-.php

Http://www.lefigaro.fr/culture/2009/11/28/03004-20091128artfig00217-l-etat-pret-a-ceder-des-monuments-nationaux-.php

Http://www.news-banques.com/les-etrangers-continuent-dacheter-des-biens-immobiliers-en-france-selon-bnp-paribas-international-bu

Http://www.brosset-immobilier.fr/newsletterprestige/newsletterprestigemai2012.html

By worldwidepress - Published in: France policy
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Wednesday, October 31, 2012 3 31 /10 /Oct /2012 6:29 PM

Just one month after the output of the book of jean-francois Cope "The Manifesto for a right greats" who had is polemical then that the candidate for the presidency of the UMP complained about a " racism anti-white", it is a case of aggression, in the Parisian metro, in which a young man had been beaten and treaty of "dirty white, dirty French" by 3 individuals who relaunched the debate on the reality or not of the "racism anti-white".

Yet, the French penal code does not mention at no time this concept of "racism" which does not prevent the LICRA in order to bring in a civil case, which apart from the gratuitous violence and juvenile to deplore, should rather be included in the topic of dogs crushed.

In a society in which everything is managed, administered, conditioning by Whites, mostly Christian, a company that has developed in the colonial past lamentable, it is obvious that the resentments emerge from time to time on the part of a tiny minority belonging to communities from the immigration.

Uneven face to the employment and integration, second-class citizens in the workings of institutions, barely born or arrived, the claims are called "social cases", responsible for all the ills of our society and by their color and denomination, it is hardly surprising that such incidents, as this aggression occur.

During the presidential campaign 2012, each was able to increase the respect openly discriminatory obliged by the straight lines on the subject of immigration stigmatizing to new populations living in the cities and thus ending of the oppressive, and the cause.

Point the finger constantly the difficult neighborhoods has nothing of secular and republican. On the contrary, the secularism in this context can only be overridden by the extremism.

As there is still 30 years ago, it was not good to be German when we crossed the hexagon. The dirty 'Bosch' to other social behavior, the french-german friendship was far from being a reality.

The politically correct is that no one is a racist, finally openly. In addition to relativize certain words, others argue that they spend their holidays in Marrakech, love Bob Marley, that Chinese cuisine is the most balanced…even if they are the followers of the cassoulet.

Up to now, only Claude Bartolone, president of the National Assembly held about which take in the secular and republican logic: "Living together is worked in the social mix, by the strengthening of the school, the force to give republican equality".

Don't worry you, anti-white racism does not exist in our society. This is not by quoting Roger Mugabe or Khalid Abdul Muhammad who in fact have fact that reproduce all stupidly what the Whites have done to their community that we now need to legislate on the "racism anti-white".

Racism about is his color of elsewhere is "a system of humiliation and oppression" imposed by individuals are recital as culturally superior.

I doubt that our three aggressors of the Parisian metro have really thinks on this "doctrine".

This "racism anti-white" is now well orchestrated. We organized a day of struggle against the "Racism anti-white" due to various incidents which occurred during the riots of 2005, but this and it is never mentioned, it is well of the assassination of Malik Oussekine in 1986 which was also held during student demonstrations and that has marked the young people of the Maghreb community. This case should have been tried before a court of assizes and not before an correctional jurisdiction. Here, too, there has been talk of "smear" but at no time of racist murder and yet the willingness to kill was well established.

In any case, even if our "3 lascards" of the station of the North are not of the white geese, it is a fear that this "racism anti-white" could become a true bête noire for the judges who will deliberate.

By worldwidepress - Published in: france society
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Wednesday, October 24, 2012 3 24 /10 /Oct /2012 10:28 PM

Of the slave trade to the globalization, Africa remains the foster within the major Western powers, and more recently the government of newly emerging countries thus allowing them to respond to their growing needs in the field of energy to the detriment of the vital needs of the African continent in terms of development.

The gangrene of NOT (Structural Adjustment Programs)

At the conclusion of the decolonisation and in the context of the cold war, most of the African economies suffer from the beginning of years 70 of macroeconomic imbalances and macro: "budget deficit, suffocating debt, galloping inflation and chronic trade deficit", thus threatening the stability of the continent. The African States, the vast majority have recourse to the IMF programs via the Bretton Woods institutions (3). The reforms or rather the NOT ( structural adjustment programs) consist in everything and for everything to establish of the austerity policies among other, the reduction of state expenditures and particularly in the areas of health and education, these measures affecting mostly the most vulnerable, particularly women.

In parallel, these States, already very weakened by a indebtedness due to a very poor management in the first place, and the borrowings and often diverted, continue to lose their sovereignty in relation to their "donors", thereby diminishing any hope of development. But what development?

These NOT, under heard also the integration of these States in the economy of globalised market, dismembered at the same time the local economies and impose as well a neoliberal policy not adapted to the realities of this huge continent paradoxically rich in raw materials, but deprived of any control over its destiny.

Yet, Joseph Stiglitz, the former vice president of the World Bank, had already denounced all these programs imposed on these African economies, programs that do not take into account the specificities of these States, in stating that their future was built from the outside, that the choice of partners was inappropriate and the decisions that are often taken by African leaders unscrupulous (3).

However, the crisis of the ' 90s, the civil wars and ethnic (1991-2001) : "a decade of chaos") (1)that had prevailed on the African continent, have this time reconfigures the status of women in this society. During this dark period, in "multiplying of small jobs" in the informal sectors, the African Women have ensured the survival of their home, thus increasing their social power and kept their financial autonomy by of craft activities (2).

With 680 million inhabitants, the population of the African continent is predominantly female ( +50 % ). Employed for the ¾ in the agricultural sector, women provide 90% of the production of foodstuffs. They are the ones who bear the health of the African countryside.

Yet, in the face of multiple inequalities and constraints in relation to men, such as those related to social norms and traditions, the non-right on land, either on the land they cultivate but which do not allow them to gain access to inputs, the share of the inheritance inequitable for the girls, the uncertainties of polygamy, which in the case of the marriage dissolved only allows more women to raise their children, forced or arranged marriage, female circumcision and no cases involving their health in danger, the high rate of maternal mortality very high (866 deaths against 100,000 pregnancies), a low rate of female enrolment (67 %) and access to care virtually nil, all these elements, not to mention, the climatic disasters (droughts, epidemics.. ), The civil wars and ethnic- (1), have finally shown that the African were equipped with a very strong determination, an exceptional ability to manage, to anticipate, to decide, that their personality was not under their loincloth (4), by reference to genital mutilation shamed by the West, but is declining by their fist.

The African woman, true "beast of burden" (1), first lifted, last lying down after the nth chore, "mother" that door, which protects, nourishes his children, to ensure that they are not lacking of nothing, one "that of their birth, the attach, securely, the dos, loincloth tied tight, link thousand time checks, while going about their countless occupations, those that 'make body" with their small and who "feel the slightest fever that affects ", those who "tremble when their children are thrilled", those who undermine when their children grow poorly because in the overcrowded classes, the teachers to the wages of misery by austerity plans are only being devalued, unmotivated" (4).

The one who knows what it is to go to the "battle", (expression for childbirth muskele), and the one on which we account" in the prevention, mediation and conflict resolution" , Custom to present the hope in the development of this vast continent (5).

The "democratization imposed" has all of the same enabled women to speak, to access to all trades and take an important place in the policy. Furthermore, the number of minister women in Africa is the highest in the world (2).

They have become the "questioner interactive "NGOS and were able to organize a network: agricultural cooperatives, association of women….

See the "nanas Benz ", (nicknamed as well as having made a fortune, they roll in Mercedes). It is for sales clerks or merchant of Togolese breechcloth without education who in the years 60 were able to pool their strength in creating their network and flood of their products the whole of West Africa (1).

Even if the microcredit is still lacking, the rate of entrepreneurship in the female also remains the highest in the world. Furthermore, in regard to funding, the system of the ancestral "tontine", in which all "members of a group are contributing to a common pot and all of which is assigned to tower of role to each of them" has shown in a long time its effectiveness in the meantime to access the freedom "framed" of microcredit. And at the appropriate time, the "tontine" offers to each member of the adequate amounts to the elaboration of a draft (1).

aminata-traore-006.JPG

At present, promoting access to women, to the rearing, with the care and information, the Africa, this great lady, up to present mutilated of the fruit of her bowels, "excised" (4) of its wealth is in a position to impose its image of "strong woman" in every sense of the figure, the "symbol" broadcast by personalities such as Aminata Traore (has) and Wangari Mathaai (b) and will be very soon in a position to develop of development policies adapted to economic realities, political and cultural African in order to decide on a more peaceful future and putting us in custody on these plans of austerity imposed currently in the "North" from which to play to present our destiny.

Aminata Traoré - Lyon 20/09/2012

(1)http://www.scienceshumaines.com/la-femme-africaine-bete-de-somme-ou-superwomen_fr_14398.html

(2)http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ACCUEILEXTN/PAYSEXTN/AFRICAINFRENCHEXT/0,,contentMDK:22851993~pagePK:146736~piPK:226

(3)http://ibrahimagassama.centerblog.net/4517626-Les-politiques-d-ajustement-structurelles-et-leurs-consequences-sur-les-crises-

(4) The Africa mutilated of Aminata Dramane MILLOHO Traoré and Nathalie Mdela-Mounier - Editions Private First Class

(5) Http://www.oecd.org/fr/csao/evenements/38518662.pdf

(A) Aminata Traoré was Minister of Culture of Mali and is the author of several books: Africa mutilated, Africa humiliated, the vise, The Rape fantasy…

(B) Wangari Mathaai was vice-minister of the environment the Keynia (2003)

By worldwidepress - Published in: Africa
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Thursday, June 28, 2012 4 28 /06 /June /2012 4:36 PM

251px-Chechnya03.pngThe real reasons why the clashes between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Chechnya that have occurred over the years 90 and the beginning of 2000 remain well often obscured and killed by politicians and the media.

To understand the past conflicts and the current tensions, it is essential to have an ethno and denominational approach of the Chechen people as well as historical and geographical in dating back to the Xviiith century, during the first attempts to conquer the taken recently by the Russian Empire and taking into account the harsh Soviet period during which the territories were recomposed and the displaced populations or deported.

The Chechens: a particular temperament

More known under the name of " Vainakhs" ( "our people") up at the beginning of the Xixth century, either of the first conquests of the Russian Empire in taken recently, the Chechens and the Ingush, which appartienent ethnolinguistic family to the Caucasian, are divided into "teips", sort of clans: the group of teips galgai which will become the " Ingush" (from the name of the city Inguch) and the group of teips nakhs called today Chechen (after the name of the locality Tchetchen).

The particularity of this people is their temperament. This are of the Montagnards accustomed to live in difficult conditions of or a strong tenacity to any test. For centuries, the Chechens have always opposed a fierce resistance to any submission: neither the Kingdom of Georgia, nor the Arab Caliphate, nor the Golden Horde, or the Ottoman Empire and neither the Khanate of Crimea are managed to impose their authority to the Vainakhs.

An islamization late

The other feature is that the islamization of this people was very late in that region of the Caucasus. It is only in the Xvith that Islam, come of Dagestan, is introduced in taken recently. So far, most of the Vainakhs were attached to the shamanic beliefs. Another part of teips vainakhs had been converted to the Georgian Orthodox Christianity in the Xth century.

It is at the beginning of the first Russian conquests in 1785 that the Vainakhs will be gathered by the Sheikh Mansour (Chechen warrior) in order to combat the Russians under the banner of Islam. The current Chechnya was in fact a true enclave (with the Avarstan) within the Tsarist Empire. In 1810, the group of teips galgai, either the Ingush decide to rely to the Russians, a position which will separate permanently the Ingush and the Chechens.

Even if the media were attempting to obscure the ethno-linguistic factors and denominational conflicts in the russo-Chechens, the Russians being a people indo-european and Christian while the Chechens belong to the Caucasian ethno group and are of confession musulmanne, however, it is obvious that these two criteria are many of the elements in the explosive context caucasian.

The conflicts Checheno-Russians until 1944

In 1834, the Chechens are similar to the Dagestani and group together within the Imamat of the Mourides (Sufi brotherhood, mystical branch of Islam) in order to fight against the Russians and to conduct the "gazavat" (Islamic holy war) in taken recently. Until 1859, they will conduct of wars without respite against Russia and will be eventually be integrated by the Empire in pursuing however the guerrillas in the mountains ciscaucasiennes until 1917.

Taking advantage of the chaotic period of the "Russian revolution", the Chechens are creating the "Republic of mountains" and lead a fierce struggle against the Soviets. These latter will be able to800px-Map of Mountain ASSR Liquidate this rebellion in 1921. In 1922, the USSR created the Chechen Autonomous Region and in 1924, the Ingush Autonomous Region. During the reforms on the borders of the autonomous regions introduced by Stalin, the Vainakhs (Ingush and Chechen) will be meeting within the autonomous Republic Checheno-Ingush in 1936.

When the Wehrmacht arrived in the Caucasus in 1942-1943, the Vainakhs are collaborating with Germany in order to fight against the Soviets. After the departure of the German troops, thousands of Chechens and Ingush will be deported to central Asia and 50,000 of them will die during this long and terrible journey.

The rehabilitation of the Vainakhs in and the beginning of new hostilities

In 1956, during the xxth Congress of the Communist Party, Nikita Khrushchev announced the rehabilitation of the Chechens and the Ingush in and recreates the RASS Tchetcheno-Ingouche . Simply, the Ingush Prigorodny district was transferred to the North Ossetia in 1943 and the district of Chechen Novolakski assigned in Dagestan in 1944 during the deletion of the RASS Tchetcheno-Ingouche . Tchetchenie.pngThis new cut will cause of the dissolution of the USSR of new conflicts with the russo-turkish war and the Chechen conflict ingoucho-Ossetian, as well as tensions between Chechens and Avars.

In October 1990 was held the Congress of Peoples Chechens in Grozny, aimed to obtain the national sovereignty for the Tchetcheno-Ingouchie . In November 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the RASS adopted a declaration of sovereignty of the Republic and also asking for the equal rights of all subjects Chechens and the Ingush with all the republics RSFS of Russia. At the same time, members of the Ingush were demanding the reallocation of territories returned to the other republics in 1943/1944, (following the removal of the RASS of Tchetcheno-Ingouchie ) and the rehabilitation of people deported by Stalin. In the face of the rise of the Chechen and Ingush nationalism, the Russian community, very numerous in the north of this region, immediately applied the linking of districts of Naourski, Sounjenski and Chelkovski to the province of Stavropol whom they belonged until 1957. Deal with the tensions between the different communities, either between the Chechens and the Ingush, the Russians and the Ossetians, the Supreme Soviet of the republic is declared illegitimate during the iind Congress of the Chechen people in June 1991 and the de-facto Checheno-Ingushetia is separated from the USSR.

The polish-russian war Chechens: 1994- -1996 and 1999-2002

It is in 1994, that Russia is trying to regain control of Chechnya. This first bloody conflict that lasted 2 years will result in a failed military, political and moral of the Russian army. In 1999, terrorist attacks in Moscow including, will serve as a pretext to regain the Chechnya by the Russian military forces. Although the opinion in Russia consider this war as a success, this offensive is far from having stabilized in that region of the Caucasus and have allowed a strong Russian domination in Chechnya.

Chechen side, despite the resistance and the material means considerable deployed, they are not able to get the support of the international community, the other Muslim peoples and of neighboring Georgia, openly anti-Russian but also anti-Chechen. In addition, the Chechnya and Ingushetia have found themselves encircled complement: In the North, by the Russian army, in the South, the border was blocked by the Georgia (this last challenging the territorial claims Chechens relating to a mountainous area on the border Checheno-Georgian) and to the west by the North Ossetia as to border disputes between the Ossetians and Ingush. The only access to the outside was a very narrow and steep to the Azerbaijan via the Dagestan but which all of even had allowed a trafficking of arms with the discrete "blessing" of Ankara.

Despite the Russian military power, the configuration of this area of fighting, is a mountain massif and steep thus limiting the movement of troops and equipment, the Russian army was again confronted with a situation similar to the one that she had experienced in Afghanistan: the invisible enemies but ubiquitous.

In addition to the tenacious temperament of the Chechens, the Caucasian War of the nineteenth century, the deportations of 1944, the anti-soviet struggles of 1917-1921 and 1942-1943, the problems of trace the boundaries of even that the ethno-linguistic factors and denominational and especially the implosion of the Soviet bloc are, in fact, the real causes of these conflicts russo-Chechens, (as of others elsewhere). It would be almost utopian to believe in a stabilization of the area, particularly in the current context of the Arab world. The peoples of the Caucasus were certainly not said their last word. Not to mention a presence justified of Russian troops in this region, the current danger is located now on the north-south axis threatening world peace. By maintaining a certain amount of pressure on this area under high voltage embarrassing the training groups of jihadists , by maintaining good relations with Iran, Russia retains its role of great powers, but probably provides a degree of security in this region or peace has never been a tradition.

Written by Chantal DOUPEUX

Sources:

Oleg Serebrian "Around the Black Sea: geopolitical space of the pontic"

The Diplomatic World 2002

Http://www.worldwidepress.info/article-le-caucase-une-zone-sous-haute-tension-107469611.html

By worldwidepress - Published in: Caucasus
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Tuesday, June 26, 2012 2 26 /06 /June /2012 9:07 PM

ethnic map of CaucasusFor centuries, the pontic caucasian space, to share the special feature of its configuration physico-geographical and its ethnic composition and denominational remains, first and foremost a zone of conflict.

This region which stretches from the Great Caucasus to the Black Sea to reach the Caspian Sea includes To the north, the taken recently with 7 federal states of the Federation: Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, North Ossetia, Karbardino-Balkanie , Karatchaivo-Tcherkessie , Adygee, the provinces of Krasnodar and of Stravopol and the west end of the Republic of Kalmykia and in its part of the South, the Transcaucasus including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia.

This axis, is the Great Caucasus, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, in addition to its multi-ethnic specificity, also offers a special feature own to this space, either a single denominational diversity: Sunni and Shia Muslims, Orthodox Christians and monophysites, Buddhist, Lamaistic, Zoroastrians, Jews of mountains and Ebraelis.Caucasus Religious Composition sm

All around, 3 actors geopolitical forces of reorganize following the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the beginning The years 90: the Russian Federation, Turkey and the fundamentalist Iran.

At present, the demise of the "geopolitical dictator" that was "The Empire Red" and the "power vacuum" that this new situation has engendered in the years 90, have led to a resurgence of old rivalries within the ex-republics already on the denominational plan, either peoples Christians and Muslims and ethnolinguistic, the indo-Europeans and the Caucasians and finally geoeconomic.

At the time of the proclamation of their sovereignty to the consecutive nationalist movements and separatists at the time of the collapse of the USSR, these ex-socialist republics found themselves face to the major problems of the trace of the borders and the rehabilitation of certain ethnic groups due to their movement during the Soviet period during which the territorial decisions were generally taken to punish the few and reward the other. Finally, this Caucasian region includes the geoeconomic interests with respect to energy resources offered by the Caspian Sea and the preponderant role of the Black Sea for its access to the oceans. All of these "components" have transformed this space into a zone of conflict, conflict for some reactive and for other created by the territorial organization imposed by the Soviets depriving some peoples of any aspiration to a national unity:

· The active conflicts

The war between Russia and Chechnya, the bloody conflict in Nagorno Karabagh (war azeri-Armenian) which remains frozen currently, the Georgian conflict-Abkhazian and Georgian-Ossetians (Russian military intervention in 2008)

· The passive conflicts

The dissension iran-united Azeri, Turco-Armenian, Azeri and Georgian, -Ossetian Ingush, lezghieno-Azeri and armenian-georgian

· The latent conflicts

Among the two dozen potential conflicts identified, the problems of the border with Chechnya and Ingushetia, but also with the Dagestan and Chechnya, the autonomy of the Laks, problem of the Avarstan..etc can be cited

In conclusion, the Russian presence and its interventions in the Caucasus, are just in fact an extension of the Soviet policy but also even if the tsarist Russian Federation is in defends. Since the dissolution of the USSR, the Russians have never accepted the loss of a part of their territory (55 %) and of its population (45 % ). The geopolitical challenge of this region is such that its alliance "tacit" but undeniable with the fundamentalist Iran which could appear out nature has its explanation in the continuity of its opposition to Turkey, either of the NATO (the Turkey being a member of NATO since 1952).

By using the argument, often by reason of the panislamism into pan-and the maintenance of peace on this space Caucasian, the Russian Federation account well continue in this region since it has lost its access to the Black Sea, its direct interests on the Caspian Sea are compromise and in light of the increase in the Muslim population on this area, the influence wahhabiste come to Saudi Arabia and suspected of financing the Arab Revolutions thus threatening the peace of the world, Russia tried to remain master of its ex-sovereign subjects on this space caucasian pontic.

Its position in the Syrian crisis, in the framework of its geo-strategic interests (Russian bases stationed in the port of Tartout in the Mediterranean Basin), economic (delivery of weapons.. ), and its alliance with Iran would explain his support for the regime of Bashar Assad considers as the "Muslim adequate" to maintain the interests and the position of regional power Russia's geopolitical while continuing its traditional role of opponent of de jure Western, now in the areas of frozen conflicts and thus, its presence on this disturbed area in the guise of a peace keeping "Disguised".

Written by Chantal DOUPEUX

Sources: Oleg Serebrian "Around the Black Sea: geopolitical space of the pontic"

Mail Federation February 2012

By worldwidepress - Published in: Caucasus
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